2,2-Dithiobis(benzothiazole) complexes (Cd and Ni): Precursors to nanoparticles and electrochemical properties and interactions with Rhodamine B
Mabaso, Busisiwe Dagracia
Vaal University of Technology
The ligand 2, 2-dithiobisbenzothiazole and it metal complexes have been a subject of interest in various fields but they have found to exhibit remarkable and prevalent biological and pharmacological activities. The ligand tends to coordinate to complexes through the sulfur atom and hence the metal-sulphide bond are good precursor to generate metal sulfide nanoparticles using single-source precursor route. The complexes are generally prepared by reflux for 1 to 2 hours depending on the solvent used to produce very stable solid products and some form in crystalline form. All the prepared nickel and cadmium complexes were characterized using techniques such as elemental analyzer, IR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimatric analysis. The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was consistent of the coordination of the ligand with the metal ions through the sulphur atoms of the 2,2-dithiobisbenzothiazole moiety. The thermal analysis of the prepared complexes gave a final residue of metal sulphide for both metal complexes. Characterization techniques showed the formation of bidentate complexes for both nickel complex and cadmium complex. The prepared complexes were then used to synthesize metal sulphide nanoparticles .The nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition method of the single source precursor in a solution of oleylamine (OLA). Two different parameters were investigated temperature and time to study their effect on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The temperatures of the reaction have a significant effect on the rate of the reaction that will affect the size and shape of the nanoparticles. This effect was confirmed by the optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles prepared at different reaction temperatures. The spectra shows that absorption maximum and band edge shift to lower wavelength as the temperature of reaction was progressively increased. This trend is associated to the decrease in particles size of the prepared nanoparticles. TEM images further confirmed that the particles size of the prepared nanoparticles was progressively decreased as the temperature was increased. The time of the reaction is one of the most significant factors in the synthesis of the nanoparticles. The investigation of the time of the reaction yield results that depicted that with increase in time of the reaction, the band edge increases, but relatively at short wavelength to the bulk. Hence, the band edges of the nanoparticles were blue shifted significantly to the bulk. The results show that with an increase in the time of the reaction, the nanoparticles increases in their size due to Ostwald ripening. The optimum complexes and optimum nanoparticles were used to further study their electrochemical properties using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) graphs were fitted using the randles circuit and they confirm that the NiS nanoparticles GCE greatly increase the electron transfer rate, probably due to the nanostructured surface property of the NiS nanoparticles. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to study the electrochemical behavior and the DPV showed that the current response of Rhb was higher for the optimum temperature NiS nanoparticles compared to all the materials used. There was an increase in the Rhb current response with an increase in pH and pH 7 was used as the optimum pH when Ni- complex was used as a modifier and pH 8 was used as optimum when NiS nanoparticles were used as a modifier. Effect of concentration showed that the NiS nanoparticles for the optimum temperature had a wide linear range and a low detection limit. The method has good accuracy, acceptable precision, and reproducibility. This method provides a novel electrochemical method for determination of RhB.
M. Tech. (Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied and Computer Sciences), Vaal University of Technology.
Rhodamine B, 2,2-Dithiobis (benzothiazole), Nanoparticles, Electrochemical properties, Elemental analyzer, Ligand, Ostwald ripening, Electrochemical properties, Biochemistry