Isolation of Pelargonium alchemilliodes L L'Her active compounds and their effects on bacterial growth and keratinocytes in vitro

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Makanyane, Madikoloho Daniel
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Vaal University of Technology
Context: Pelargonium alchemilliodes L L' Her is an evergreen shrub, cultivated principally for the medicinal essence and decoction in Southern Africa for the treatment of skin problems, and wounds. Objective: the aim of the study was to optimize the extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from P. graveolens by response surface methodology with particular attention on the proliferative and cytotoxic effects on human keratinocytes, as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities and also to isolate active compounds. Materials and Methods: The optimization was achieved by Box-Behnken design. Extract, metabolite yields, and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by gravimetric, spectrophotometric, and microdilution methods, respectively. The antiradical potentials were evaluated using the phosphomolybdate. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and lipid peroxidation assays, the diterpenoids were isolated and purified using open column chromatography, PTLC, and characterized with FTIR, NMR. The kinetics of the lipid protective activity was studied and fitted into models. The proliferative and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the CellTiter® Blue cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Results: The regression coefficient r2 ≥ 0.9775 indicated a close correlation between actual and predicted values of the responses. The ideal parameter for the extraction of phenolics and flavonoids by macerations was determined as an extraction time: 9.63-12.01 h, material mass: 2.62-3.00 g, agitation speed: 143.11-197.11 rpm, and solvent volume: 68.06-69.87 mL. The optimal extractable acetone and methanol crude, flavonoids, and phenolic are (28.87±2.15%, 24.11±1.15%), (7.11±1.03 mg QE/g, 5.98±0.87 mg QE/g) and (58.08±0.88 mg GAE/g, 55.91±1.15 mg GAE/g), respectively. The detected different chemical groups of polyphenolic compounds such as alkaloids, saponins , sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and cardiac glycosides from methanol and acetone extracts were in correlation with optimized yields. Two triterpenoids compounds 1-hydroxy-30-norlanosta-6, 8-diene and 1 2,3,4a,8,9,10,10a-octahydro-2-(2-hydroxypent-4-enyl)-4a-vinyl-1H-benzo[c]chromen-6(10bH)-one were isolated form methanol extracts. The main components of essential oils were citronellal (5.99%), citranellol (26.2%), geraniol (8.56%), citronellyl butyrate (20.3%), trans-farnesol (9.53%) and they were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated hydrocarbons (67.6%), followed by sesquterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpene (9.32%) and the least being mornoterpene hydrocarbons (5.20%). Total antioxidant capacity and reducing power were comparable to standard gallic acid, while the antiradical activity has IC50 value of 0.18±0.03-8.98±0.15 mg/mL. Further, the lipid protective revealed a dose-dependent activity fitting into a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. MIC value of 1.56 mg/mL for extracts was registered against Staphylococcus aureus and salmonella typhi comparable to chloramphenicol. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in cell proliferation and viability when the extract was administered at concentrations of ≤50 μg/mL. However, at ≥100 μg/mL concentrations at ≤ 1000 μg/mL for essential oil exhibited a significnt cytotoxicity in comparison to the untreated cell. Conclusion: These biological activities are confirmation of the phytomedicinal application and possible source of pharmaceutical compounds. However, administration of the decoction should take into cognizance the antiproliferative effect at doses ≥100 μg/mL as well as the potential to induce and maintain keratinocyte proliferation at low concentration with an eye on the antiproliferative effect at concentrations ≥100 μg/mL, except the P. Alchemilliodes essential oils at ≤ 1000 μg/mL.
M. Tech. (Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied and Computer Sciences), Vaal University of Technology.
Pelargonium alchemilliodes, Isolation, L L'Her active compounds, Bacterial growth, Keratinocytes in vitro, Antioxidant, Antibacterial activities, Medicinal essence, Skin problems and wounds