Theses and Dissertations (Human Resources Management)

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    Trade union members' perception of the effectiveness of and satisfaction with their unions in municipalities in Gauteng South
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021-10) Mbuli, Sibongile; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Joubert, P. A., Prof.
    For decades, trade unions have been entrusted to represent and protect the interest of employees in a workplace. They have been the voices of employees throughout the globe. Throughout the years, they have successfully built strong relationships with their union members and obtained recognition in many organisations. Consequently, trade unions have negotiated better working conditions and better wages for their members. However, in recent years there have been numerous reports of membership decline in trade unions globally. The primary objective of the study is to determine trade union members’ perceptions of the effectiveness of and satisfaction with their trade unions in municipalities in Gauteng south. To achieve the objective of this study, a quantitative research approach was used to examine the relationship between union effectiveness and member satisfaction among 330 union members. Furthermore, means and factor analysis were performed to determine the level of union effectiveness and member satisfaction among union members and to establish the underlying factors of the constructs, respectively. Additionally, correlation analysis was conducted to determine the strength and direction of the relationship between factors. Finally, regression analysis was performed to confirm the predictive relationship between factors. The findings of this study showed a positive correlation between union effectiveness and the four factors of member satisfaction, namely, conditions of employment, representation of union members, education and training and member service. The positive relationship between union effectiveness and member satisfaction indicates that union effectiveness has a huge impact on member satisfaction. A predictive relationship was observed between three factors of member satisfaction, namely, conditions of employment, representation of union members, and education and training; however, no predictive relationship was observed between union effectiveness and member satisfaction. Based on the findings it was recommended that trade unions ought to do more for their members and to show that they have their best interests at heart. According to the findings, union members currently may feel neglected and not accurately represented by their trade unions.
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    Employee empowerment, career satisfaction and intention to stay of employees in a printing organisation in Pretoria
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-07) Mqokozo, Adelaide Zandile; Joubert, P. A., Prof.
    This study aimed at investigating a relationship between employee empowerment, career satisfaction and intention to stay of employees in a printing organisation in Pretoria, South Africa. One of the crucial tasks of government is to build a public service that is capable of meeting the needs of South African citizens. Government will not be able to improve public service delivery without working together with the public servants, who are the major role-players in ensuring that the above is achieved successfully. The study was intended to investigate the relationship between employee empowerment and career satisfaction with a view to retain the employees of the Government Printing Works. This study followed a quantitative research approach, and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the constructs. The questionnaire consisted of four sections. Section A solicited information on participants’ demographic profile. Section B contained questions on Employee empowerment, Section C on career satisfaction and Section D on intention to stay. The results of the correlation analysis in this study revealed that there is a significant moderate positive relationship between employee empowerment and career satisfaction. The results also revealed a weak positive relationship between employee empowerment and intention to stay. Based on the findings, a number of recommendations were made to help improve employee empowerment, career satisfaction and increase the intention to stay of employees. It was therefore recommended that conditions which may lead to employees feeling powerless should be identified and removed and certain powers should be delegated to employees to enable work decisions to be taken quicker and encourage innovativeness of employees. Since the study results highlighted an existence of a strong relationship between career satisfaction and intention to stay, it is necessary to increase career satisfaction in order to increase intention to stay. In order to improve career satisfaction among employees, it was therefore recommended that Government Printing Works should avail opportunities for growth and more responsibility for employees by providing them with jobs that will not only challenge them but give them a sense of reward and fulfilment at the same time. The study contributes to the body of knowledge by providing increased understanding of employee empowerment, career satisfaction and intention to stay of employees in the government sector, specifically in the unexplored territory of government printing. The study also suggests future research opportunities on its constructs, specifically in the printing and public sectors. It is recommended that future research incorporate more than one organisation in the printing sector and more than one government department. Since this study made use of a quantitative research design, future research on these constructs could take on a qualitative or mixed methods approach to gain a deeper understanding of the constructs and their relationships.
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    Validation of the employability of entry-level HR graduates in the South African Labour context
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2023-03) Zeni, Marchelle Marelize; Van Rensburg, Christine Jane, Dr.; Marais, Christel, Dr.
    Background Role players navigating the world of work must make timely paradigm shifts as work realities constantly change nationally and worldwide. After graduation, the conventional idea of being competent for entry-level positions has given way to the notion of employability, which is now crucial in the evolving workplace and implies the necessity for obtaining new skills and traits. Students no longer attend higher education institutions solely for the goal of academic advancement. It must be said that employability is a competitive edge in the South African labour market, which has a relatively low demand for new entrants. Today, automation and technology advancements have altered the nature of the labour market, where mismatches and skill shortages are being experienced as opposed to academic qualifications. In addition, the industry expressed concern over the fact that graduates do not always meet their demands and expectations and expect HEIs to align their curricula to promote employability. Universities also have difficulty producing skilled graduates since they place an undue emphasis on topic knowledge, which employers view as inadequate given the status of the economy today. Furthermore, HEIs find it challenging to stay abreast with the macro-environment changes and the continuously changing skills expectations of the industry. Some of the skill changes significantly impact workers and the companies they work for, with entry-level job seekers particularly affected. The employer’s expectations of entry-level graduates are high and are growing as they expect more and more from the new graduates. Aims This study investigates the validation of the employability of entry-level HR graduates in the South African labour context. The focus was centred around employers’ expectations and experiences. Relevant theoretical and empirical objectives supported the study’s primary objective. Methodology The study’s epistemological stance culminated in a positivist research approach. The invitation to participate in the study was distributed via the SABPPs monthly newsletter and social media platforms. Due to the implications of protecting private information (POPI Act) and the challenges of data collection during the COVID-19 pandemic, a non-probability (small-scale) self-selection sampling method resulted in a sample size of n=161 respondents. The configuration of Hinchliffe and Jollie’s (2011) “Graduate identity and employability” was adapted with their permission for this study. Consequently, a structured questionnaire, guided by the study’s empirical objectives, consisted of nine sections. Section A sought informed consent and Section B elicited the respondent’s demographic data. In sections C through H, questions about the experiences and expectations of the entry-level HR graduate were posed. Lastly, Section I explored how the COVID-19 pandemic affected respondents' expectations and experiences of entry-level HR graduates. Respondents indicated their answers using Google forms. In the initial pilot study (n=31 respondents), feedback received culminated in a refined and effective measuring instrument. The pilot studies’ reliability coefficients ranged from 0.757 to 0.976, which exhibited satisfactory reliability. In addition, these results indicate that the questionnaire was suitable for collecting information for the main inquiry. Aspects related to the statistical processes used and ethical considerations guiding the study were highlighted. Results and discussion Empirical conclusions reached were supported by the statistical analysis of the data and the discussion thereof. Descriptive statistics facilitated the determination of the employer’s (respondents) expectations (A) and their experiences (B) of the entry-level HR graduate. Frequencies and percentages emanating from sections C to H were presented in tables, charts, or figures. Each section consisted of A expectations and B experiences. Additionally, the mean, SD, minimum, maximum, skewness and kurtosis were used to explain the distribution of the results. The data as frequencies and percentages could be compared for the expectations and experiences of the various sections (sections C to H). This studys reliability coefficients presented alpha values ranging from 0.839 to 0.959, which shows satisfactory reliability. Thereafter, a t-test was conducted to determine the Cohen’s-d value. The results revealed a large effect across sections C to H. Finally, a t-test with a one-way ANOVA test was done. The detailed discussion of the findings discerned that respondents’ expectations (A) were higher throughout the study than their actual experiences (B). General Despite a plethora of lists that supposedly indicate skills needed by graduates to secure employment, there is little consensus amongst existing scholarship while defining skills and the concept of employability. The skills approach was identified as ‘old-fashioned’ and made way for the graduate identity approach to give a clear understanding of graduate employability. Through experiences, interactions and self-discovery during their time at HEIs, the graduates can build their graduate identity and with this identity they can present themselves to potential employers. Therefore, the graduate identity profile consists of more than just skills and attributes. Conclusions The findings highlight significant insight into employers’ expectations of entry-level HR graduates. The results show that employers place high expectations on HR graduates. Technological advancements and HR trends contribute to employers’ high expectations, which makes it difficult for an entry-level graduate to secure employment. The graduate’s transition from university to the labour market is influenced by these high expectations and the high unemployment rate that makes securing a job even harder. Obtaining a degree is no longer the main requirement of employers. Graduates are expected to develop outside-the-classroom competencies and more. The graduate is exposed to new knowledge through self-discovery and personal interactions with others. These interactions will grant the graduate an opportunity to build their graduate profile. Employers want young graduates to participate in mentoring programs, join a committee and do community service. In addition, the competencies acquired during their study at university must be demonstrated to have significant value for potential employers. Employers, therefore, have higher expectations of entry-level HR graduates than they did in the past. The study found that enhancing graduates' employability prospects requires more than merely preparing them for the workforce by giving them the required skills, attributes and subject knowledge. Graduates must also gain job experience at university and learn about the industry they want to work in. The graduate should be flexible, work remotely and be eager to learn as their circumstances change. According to the study's findings, employers demand a graduate identity that will suit their culture from day one and this identity is vulnerable to challenges and change. Recommendations The study’s findings and recommendations are significant for HEIs, the HR industry and HR graduates. Rather than concentrating solely on theoretical subject knowledge, it is recommended that the HR curricula include methodologies for skill development. The quality of the workforce's skills impacts the economy of SA. Therefore, it is recommended that HEIs consider the demands of a more comprehensive labour market, influenced by technological advancements, AI innovations and HR trends. These changes will require a workforce with higher skill levels. Further, it is recommended that HEIs and the industry collaborate to improve existing Work integrated learning (WIL) programmes to enhance graduate employability. This partnership can also build relevant and required competencies into the curriculum to benefit all role players. Graduates are encouraged to acknowledge that obtaining a degree is but one aspect of securing future employment. A proactive approach to learning and development could enhance their employability prospects as they advance. Taking ownership of their graduate identity profile could expand the graduates’ efforts, interactions and the process of self-discovery. Graduates should continuously learn new skills and obtain knowledge outside the classroom through part-time work and networking.
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    Influence of training and development on job satisfaction, loyalty and retention: A study among academics at a selected University of Technology
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-06-30) Mampuru, Motlokoe Philharmon; Mokoena, B. A., Prof.; Isabirye, A. K., Dr.
    This study has extended the research on the influence of training and development on job satisfaction, loyalty, and retention among academics at a university of technology. The Universities of Technology (UoTs) were established in South Africa with the aim of rearranging the higher education system. The introduction of these new types of universities into the higher education setup was faced with various challenges that included, but not limited to extreme competition among the institutions of higher learning. As newcomers into the higher education environment, the Universities of Technology performed poorly compared to traditional universities in terms of research and innovation activities. To be competitive in the higher education environment, UoTs had to embark on training and development of their staff. To this day, training and development interventions are common practices within UoTs. This study used a quantitative research approach and a non-probability convenience sampling technique to determine the relationships between training and development, job satisfaction, loyalty, and retention among academics. Out of 350 hand-delivered questionnaires, 270 were completed and returned by the participants. A pilot study and pre-testing of the questionnaire were undertaken prior the main study to ensure reliability of the scales. The collected data were analysed through descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and regression analysis using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26. The relationships between the study’s constructs were determined through correlation and regression analyses. All the results of correlational combinations showed that all possible relationships of variables were significant at the 0.01 level. The overall research results revealed the existence of significant positive relationships between training and development, job satisfaction, loyalty, and retention.
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    The influence of organisational justice on organisational citizenship behaviour of employees at a railway company in Johannesburg, Gauteng
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021) Kgomo, Moratuwa; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Joubert, P. A., Prof.
    In South Africa, rail transport is an important element to support economic development and this service is provided by the railway company as the focus of this study. Similar to other companies, the selected railway company depends on its employees as a crucial resource to execute duties aimed at the realisation of its objectives. For the company to remain successful, its employees must have positive behaviours and attitudes and have the ability to work in a fair and just environment. Organisational justice, as an indicator of a fair and just work environment, and organisational citizenship behaviour, influence work-related behaviours and attitudes and are critical for the smooth operation of any organisation. Currently, the railway company seems to have a high number of reported incidents relating to organisational citizenship behaviour including misconduct, disciplinary, criminal and/or civil action. This might be an outcome of employee perceptions of organisational justice. This study examines the relationship between organisational justice and organisational citizenship behaviour for the first time in the rail industry in South Africa. Drawing on the Social Exchange Theory, the primary aim of this study is to investigate employees’ perceptions of organisational justice and their effects on organisational citizenship behaviour in a railway company in Johannesburg, Gauteng. The study adopted a deductive research approach and a quantitative method was used to collect data. Utilising a structured questionnaire, respondents were solicited to provide their demographic variables and their responses to four different measurement scales, namely procedural justice, distributive justice, interactional justice and organisational citizenship behaviour using a seven-point Likert scale ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 7=strongly agree. Using convenience sampling, questionnaires were distributed to 400 identified employees of the railway company in Johannesburg, Gauteng. A total of 378 questionnaires were returned and this constituted the sample size of the study. The Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient was used to find the strength of relationships with the use of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. To assess the employees' perceptions of organisational justice, their levels of organisational citizenship behaviour and the relationship between the constructs, descriptive statistical analysis, correlation and regression analysis were used. Based on the findings, the results of the correlation analysis revealed no significant relationships between all three dimensions of organisational justice (procedural justice, distributive justice, interactional justice) and organisational citizenship behaviour. Regression analysis also resulted in no predictive relationships between organisational justice and organisational citizenship behaviour. Evidence indicates that the fairness of distribution, procedures and interactions are not the key contributors in affecting the level of organisational citizenship behaviour of employees at the railway company. The study makes various recommendations including that management should treat employees fairly and equally and apply fair decision-making processes with fair outcomes. Additionally, to improve, increase and keep the standard of OCB, an organisational policy on organisational justice should be in place, which must constantly be updated. Research on OJ and OCB is still limited, particularly in the field of rail transport, as this study is the first and only study that has been conducted in South Africa. This represents an opportunity for academics and labour relations practitioners to further engage in research on antecedents and outcomes of organisational behaviour in the railway industry.
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    Career mobility of employees with disabilities in a Gauteng-based state-owned enterprise
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-08) Modise, Catherine Mmanare; Joubert, P. A., Prof.; Kasonkola, K., Dr.
    This study noted the implications of the absence of a strategic framework to manage the career mobility of employees with disabilities in the Gauteng-based, state-owned enterprise (SOE). In response to the limited research on career mobility of employees with disabilities (EwDs), the study aimed to investigate EwDs understanding of the phenomenon, identify its enablers and inhibitors, as well as propose a strategic framework for managing it. The study is significant for the inclusion of EwDs and contributing to employers achieving employment equity targets, as required of them by the Employment Equity Act (55 of 1998). In order to achieve the study’s objectives, an exploratory design was employed by conducting individual interviews with five purposively selected participants on junior management levels. A semi-structured interview schedule was developed and piloted with two champions who represent the interests of EwDs in disability forums within the SOE. Given the prevailing circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, the researcher collected the data online via Microsoft Teams (MS Teams). The data were analysed manually for emerging themes using Braun and Clarke’s six steps of data analysis. The study found that career mobility was understood by participants to include promotion (job change), succession planning and gainful employment supported by opportunities for skills transfer and reasonable accommodation. Factors identified as enablers of career mobility are training and career development, disability awareness and sensitisation, reasonable accommodation, social networks and benchmarking. Those factors perceived as inhibiting career mobility are mind-set, inaccessible training, lack of confidence and poor succession planning. Through conversations with the participants, the researcher identified critical components for the development of a strategic framework to enhance career mobility for EwDs as organisational diagnostics (input factor), enabling policies and support systems (process factors) and inclusion and career mobility evident in employment equity targets being met (outcomes) to manage career mobility of EwDs in the workplace. The main limitations of the study are that the results cannot be generalised to other settings without validation of the proposed strategic framework due to the sample size involved. It is recommended that future studies consider sensitivity regarding the prevailing circumstances around research during periods of pandemics and the use of language in the field of disability research. It is further recommended that employers consider implementing benchmarked disability awareness and sensitisation programmes to create a conducive environment for EwDs to achieve career mobility in the workplace. Lastly, employers should develop and implement programmes that will enhance mental health and well-being of EwDs and consider the establishment of empowered disability forums.
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    The relationship between motivation and job satisfaction of academics at a University of Technology in Southern Gauteng
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2015-02) Naile, Idah 'Maphalima; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Van Zyl, Y., Dr.
    The relationship between motivation and job satisfaction at work has been one of the more widely researched areas in the field of management in different professions, but few studies in South Africa have explored these two constructs among academic employees in Higher Education. Although there is a positive relationship between the two constructs, it has been somewhat overlooked by researchers. The objective of this study therefore, is to determine the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction among academic employees at a University. In view of this the researcher seeks to establish whether a there is a relationship between the constructs understudy. The literature study explored the theoretical aspects of motivation and job satisfaction and their relationship. Using a quantitative research approach, the study hypothesised and investigated motivation and job satisfaction in a sample that consisted of 162 academic employees. Two instruments, namely the Work Preference Inventory (WPI) and the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), were used to collect the data and determine the existence of a relationship between motivation and job satisfaction. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 for Windows was used to analyse the data; these results are presented and discussed in detail. The study adopted a Confirmatory Factor Analysis technique using Structural Equation Modelling with a Partial Least Squares (semPLS) approach, to measure the relationship by calculating the Cronbach Alpha, the Composite Reliability (CR) value, the Average Value Extracted (AVE), Goodness of Fit and hypotheses. Findings of this study revealed that a significant positive relationship exists between motivation and job satisfaction with the enjoyment variable and job satisfaction reflecting a positive relationship and the other three variables (Challenge, Compensation and Outward Motivation) showing that a negative but significant relationship exists between these three constructs and job satisfaction. It has been recommended that management should look into putting proper motivation and job satisfaction initiatives into place and should also create opportunities for growth by giving academics challenging assignments and providing training and development strategies that will increase their motivation and job satisfaction.
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    Employees' perceptions of the effects of retrenchment on job stress and organisational commitment in a mining company
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2016-11) Seteni, Landiswa Pilvia; Joubert, P. A., Dr.; Dhurup, M., Prof.
    In the decade before 2005, South African organisations have had to cope with an ever-increasing rate of local and global changes. There have been considerable and ongoing socio-political changes, resulting from new Government regulations. Most organisations have experienced some type of downturn, whether due to external business factors or poor internal performance. A typical response to organisational decline is retrenchment. Retrenchment is attributed to cyclical downturns, market losses or other economic factors, which oblige the employer to reduce the labour force numbers. Though there are so many ways of responding to organisational failure, this study focused only on retrenchment. A number of psychologists and human sciences researchers have studied the results of job loss due to retrenchment. Retrenchment brings loss of skills, loss of morale and commitment, as well as physical and mental health degradation, including stress that results in employees withdrawing physically and emotionally. The main purpose of this study was to outline the employees’ perceptions of the effects of retrenchment on job stress and organisational commitment in a mining company. The research methodology used in this study is a combination of a literature review and an empirical study. The probability sampling technique, which entails using simple random sampling, was used to select the sample of the study. The primary data were collected using a questionnaire. The measuring instrument contained 43 items. The measuring instrument was pilot-tested with 50 respondents three weeks before the main survey; the questionnaire was self-administered to the participants. For the main survey, data from 294 respondents were collected and analysed. Participants in the study involved surface employees, including management, administrators, engineers and artisans. Data were analysed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the various sections of the measuring instrument were computed to establish construct validity. Content validity was ascertained by pre-testing the questionnaire with the employees in the mine in question. Correlations were used to establish convergent validity of the constructs. Convergent validity was assessed to measure the degree of linear association of variables using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Discriminant validity was achieved by using regression analysis to show items loaded onto different factors in various sections which had more than one factor. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics on the demographic information of respondents. The results were also interpreted through correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that the effects of retrenchment did not have a negative impact on job stress (time stress and anxiety). This may be due to the mine in question planning and consulting with the employees prior to the retrenchment process. The results also showed that job stress (time stress and anxiety) is negatively associated with organisational commitment. Subsequent to these findings, it is recommended that employees (survivors) be updated on their future in the company in question. This could be done through regular workshops and counselling of employees. In order to motivate and engage employees, and thereby contribute to employee commitment, it was also recommended that organisations create open, supportive and fair organisational and team cultures, and ensure jobs are clearly aligned with organisational goals and have appropriate levels of autonomy, support and career development. Given that job satisfaction plays a huge role in organisational commitment, it was further recommended that managers need to actively improve their organisation’s job satisfaction to employees in order to achieve a higher level of organisational commitment. The study concludes by recommending that communication between employees and management should take place on a regular basis which can serve as a fundamental tool to retrenchment in the following manner:  Survivors will feel more committed to the organisation when the basis of retrenchment addresses the circumstances in the external environment, rather than the enrichment of shareholders or top management.  Communicating a clear vision of how retrenchment will benefit stakeholders, increases commitment since survivors can see a clear future for the organisation.  When survivors are treated with dignity and respect, they will feel more committed to the organisation because they feel appreciated.
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    Virtual expert systems and decision accuracy of non-experts in technology consulting
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2018-10) Van den Berg, Amelia; Joubert, P. A., Dr.; Kasonkola, K., Dr.
    This objectivist, experimental study investigated the influence of virtual expert systems (VES) on the decision accuracy of non-expert consultants within a technology consulting contact centre environment. Because of the overwhelming availability of conceptual information, non-expert consultants experience challenges in making accurate decisions, and would benefit from augmented technologies, such as VES. VES hold the ability to capture and scale large volumes of decision variables for consideration by human experts when making decisions. A total of 40 participants were randomly selected from contact centres in the Eastern Cape and Gauteng provinces of South Africa for this study. Human logic was captured and scaled into a technology fault finding virtual expert and administered as an experiment to group participants. The experimental and control group participants were randomly assigned to the respective groups of 20 participants each. The control group was exposed to the paper-based, fault-finding manual. The pre-test and post-test data were collected based on four decision accuracy measures, namely individual performance, average call handling time, first call resolution and customer service. The Clarify performance system of the participating technology consulting company was used as data collection tool to record the findings used for Chapter 5. Statistical data analyses were performed using ANOVA and two-tailed significance tests to test the relationship between VES and decision accuracy in the pre-test and post-test phases of the study. The study found that the participant scores on the decision accuracy measures were only statistically significant on the measure of first call resolution measure (significance score of a p value <.05). On the other (three) measures, the scores obtained from experimental group participants showed more improvement than that of the control group participants. Consequently, the hypothesis that the use of VES enhance decision accuracy amongst non-expert technology consultants was accepted and the alternative hypothesis rejected. Some limitations pertaining to the resultant Hawthorne effect (the effect when some employees work harder and perform better when they are participants in an experiment) was noted amongst participants. This effect resulted from the use of team leaders in monitoring performance during the experiment and the involvement of the technology consulting company in determining the performance norms of the identified measures. Another limitation of the study related to the size of the sample where only two provinces were included. The limitation may affect the generalisation of results to other future settings when such a study is repeated. It was recommended that future studies in this field should make provision for a larger population, inclusive of other provinces to avoid these limitations.
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    Job stress, work tension and job satisfaction of academics at a University of Technology
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-11) Maliwa, Ncumisa; Joubert, P. A., Prof.; Dhurup, M., Prof.
    Until recently, the majority of the academics viewed the life of an academic as idyllic, autonomous and well protected. However, this scenario has since changed due to economic constraints and the reduction of government funding and funding from government agencies. Congruent to these transformations, technology advancements, students’ diversity, blended learning and the introduction of learning platforms has created further challenges in the way students learn and how modules are offered. It has become pivotal for academics to make contributions in the field of work through teaching and learning, community engagement, undertaking research activities, being part of staff training activities, performing administrative work, planning lectures, setting and marking of assessments providing feedback on academic performance, among other activities. These responsibilities often generate stress within the working environment. University academics face high stress levels that arise from persistent demands of academic life. This research drew from the confluence of the job demand control-support model and Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory. The research fits within a post-positivist quantitative paradigm whereby survey data was acquired from 250 academics from a university through a convenience sampling technique. A structured questionnaire encompassing the study constructs was used. Before data collection, a pilot study was done by administering the questionnaire to 40 respondents. The demographic variables of respondents namely gender, age, ethnicity and education were analysed using bar graphs and pie charts. The data was tested for normality and heteroscedasticity. The results showed that the assumptions were not violated. The study observed the effect of role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload and time stress on work tension and the influence of work tension on job satisfaction. The reliability analysis showed that all the constructs under investigation yielded an internal consistency reliability that is acceptable. Descriptive statistics were computed to summarise the data into usable information by making use of measures of central tendency. They were presented for each construct. The mean values for each construct was approximately neutral, which implies that many of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed with the items. Regression and correlation analysis were undertaken to examine the effect of the various study constructs in line with the objectives of the study. The findings of the research depicted that there was a positive association between role conflict (RC), role ambiguity (RA), role overload (RO), time pressure (TP) on work tension (WT). The association between work tension (WT) and job satisfaction (JS) was found to be negative and significant. It was recommended among other things that the university management should put in place strategies to moderate RC, RA, RO, TP to reduce WT and job dissatisfaction.
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    Job satisfaction and intention to quit of employees in non-governmental organisations in Swaziland
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2017) Msibi, Welile Nompumelelo; Janse van Rensburg, C.; Joubert, P. A., Dr.
    The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe the factors contributing to job satisfaction among employees of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Swaziland and to understand the drivers leading employees to think of quitting. Non-governmental organisations are institutions that provide employment opportunities in addition to the private sector and government institutions. The success of NGOs is determined by the availability and commitment of efficient and effective human resources. However, currently, most NGOs are highly affected by staff turnover and, therefore, the quality of the service they provide to the beneficiaries is affected and the financial and non-financial costs of filling vacant posts is significantly increased. To investigate this, a quantitative study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. A total of 300 employees working in NGOs throughout Swaziland were invited to complete the questionnaire and 197 useable responses were collected. The reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha) and construct validity (factor analysis) of the questionnaire were determined. This questionnaire was found to be reliable and valid. The statistical results obtained in this study showed that both forms of job satisfaction (intrinsic and extrinsic) have an inverse relationship with employees’ intentions to quit and that intrinsic job satisfaction was found to have a stronger influence on intention to quit.
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    The influence of organisational commitment and job satisfaction on employee corporate social responsibility participation in a financial institution in Gauteng
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-09) Nkumane, Mthobisi Roderick; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Joubert, P., Prof.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become as an important topic as it has ramifications for practitioners. Corporate social responsibility can change employees’ approaches, demands and behaviours. Organisations can build a sound relation with its employees by promoting CSR in the organisation and inspiring employees to partake in these activities. The primary objective of the study is to explore the relationship between organisational commitment, job satisfaction as well as explore the relationship between job satisfaction and CSR among employees in a financial institution in Gauteng. A quantitative research approach method was used to achieve the primary objective. A structured questionnaire was issued to 250 respondents. Furthermore, composite means and factor analysis were performed to determine the level of organisational commitment, job satisfaction and corporate social responsibility of employees and to establish the underlying factors of the constructs respectively. Additionally, correlation analysis was conducted to establish the strength and direction of the relationship between the factors. Finally, a regression analysis was performed to confirm the predictive relationship between the study constructs. The findings of this study showed a positive correlation between affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment and JS, and also showed a positive correlation between JS and CSR. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the more committed the financial institution employees, the more they are satisfied with their job in the institution. Furthermore, JS contributed positively to CSR, which implied that the more satisfied the employees of the financial institution, the more they feel being part of the CSR activities of the financial institution.
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    The influence of person-environment fit, person-organisation fit and person-job fit on career satisfaction and intention to leave among university academics
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020) Sebolaoa, Refiloe Engelina; Joubert, P. A., Prof.; Dhurup, M., Prof.
    The face of South African (SA) universities’ academic environment has changed over the past decade, primarily propelled by transformation issues, new policies and practices, which also required academics to have certain skills and attributes. Recruiting and retaining key academics in the public higher education (HE) are not once-off events; they are ongoing processes that involve analysing the needs, culture and practices of the organisation and identifying individuals whose skills and personalities better meet those organisational needs. Given the rapid restructuring and transformation of SA public HE, recruiting and retaining of essential talent has been a huge challenge experienced by higher education institutions (HEIs). Research relating to how HEIs could better attract and retain key talent has, however, been scarce; as such, this study aims to fill the existing gap in the literature. Against this background, this study aimed at exploring the influence of person-environment fit (PEF), person-organisation fit (POF) and person-job fit (PJF) on career satisfaction (CS) and the influence of CS on intention to leave (ITL) among university academics. Embedded within a positivist paradigm, the study followed a quantitative research approach. A structured questionnaire was used to measure study constructs. In addition to the soliciting information on the demographic variables, respondents were requested to complete five different measuring scales, namely the general environment fit scale (GEFS), organisational culture profile (OCP), the knowledge, skills and ability profile (KSAP), the career satisfaction scale (CSS) and the intention to leave scale (ITLS). A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to the identified sample of university academics and from that distribution only 202 questionnaires were used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics techniques as well as correlation and regression analysis were used to evaluate academics’ perceptions and relationships between study constructs. Findings revealed the existence of strong positive associations between the three fit constructs and CS and a negative association between CS and ITL. The findings also propose that the HEI could use fit dimensions to increase the level of academics’ CS and reduce their proclivity to leave the HEI. Academics’ CS can be enhanced by the implementation of a career advancement policy that will ensure that academics are provided with fair and equal training and development opportunities and are promoted based on their individual performances. To constantly reduce the propensity to leave the institution, the HEI could continuously satisfy career goals of academics through the provision of career progression opportunities.
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    Emotional intelligence, resilience and happiness among police offices in the Sedibeng west district
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-11-09) Makateng, Agnes Remaketse; Mafini, C., Prof.; Van Zyl, Y., Dr
    Law enforcement departments require staff members that are psychologically stable when facing stressful, unpleasant and undesirable situations during work activities. The literature indicates that law enforcers are exposed to dangerous and unpredictable situations; hence, emotional intelligence, resilience and happiness are important to them. Although the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI), resilience and happiness are considered essential, previous research based on these constructs within the law enforcement departments is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between EI, resilience and happiness among police officers in the Sedibeng West District in the Gauteng province, South Africa. The study followed a quantitative research approach and a probability sampling method to achieve its empirical objectives. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 400 police officers within the Sedibeng West District. 330 responses were received, which resulted in a response rate of 82.5 percent for the main study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data to determine the levels of EI, resilience and happiness among police officers and the results were positive. Correlation analysis was undertaken to investigate the existence of an association between the constructs. The results indicated a weak positive association between the self-emotion appraisal (SEA) dimension of EI and resilience recovery, and a positive association between the SEA dimension and resilience control. A weak positive association between the use of emotion (UOE) dimension of EI and resilience recovery was revealed and a positive association between UOE and resilience control as well. A significant weak positive association was indicated for the EI dimension other’s emotion appraisal (OEA) and resilience recovery, and a positive association between OEA and resilience control was also revealed. A significant weak positive association between the regulation of emotion (ROE) dimension of EI and resilience recovery, and a moderate positive association between ROE and resilience control was reported. Lastly, a moderate positive association between resilience recovery and happiness was reported and a positive, however, weak association between resilience control and happiness was reported. Regression analysis was undertaken to determine the predictive relationships between the constructs. The results showed no predictive relationship between SEA and resilience recovery and resilience control; between OEA and resilience recovery and resilience control; and between UOE and resilience recovery and resilience control. A significant predictive relationship between ROE and resilience recovery and resilience control was revealed. Lastly, a predictive relationship existed between both resilience dimensions (resilience recovery and resilience control) and happiness. The study recommends that law enforcement departments should develop police officers’ EI, resilience and happiness by promoting subjective well-being (SWB) programs. Programs focusing on EI may be implemented to enhance knowledge on how to regulate and manage emotions. Mental health clinics and debriefing sessions should be held to provide police officers with moral support. Finally, an action-oriented approach to assist police officers with their coping strategies and behavioural treatment is also recommended. The study also recommends that the involvement of Human Resources Development (HRD) within police departments should serve to support the wellness and development of police officers.
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    Quality of work life, job satisfaction and happiness among academics at a university of technology in southern Gauteng
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020) Loko, Lieketseng Maburu; Dhurup, M., Prof.; van Zyl, Y., Dr.
    It is essential for universities of technology to employ academics who are willing to go beyond the requirements of the job to contribute to the university’s effectiveness. The developing trend in the organisational behaviour literature indicates that quality of work life (QWL) and job satisfaction are attitudes that have a major impact on organisational outcomes such as productivity, job performance, turnover intention and happiness. Although the relationship between the aforementioned constructs is considered important, there is a scarcity of research regarding these constructs in the context of a university of technology (UoT) in South Africa. The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of work life, job satisfaction and happiness among academics at a UoT in southern Gauteng, South Africa. A quantitative research approach and a survey-based descriptive method was used to achieve the primary objective. A structured questionnaire was distributed among 300 academic employees at a UoT in southern Gauteng, South Africa. Means and factor analysis were performed to gather insights of employees in terms of factors of QWL, job satisfaction and happiness of employees and to establish the underlying factors of the constructs respectively. Additionally, a correlation analysis was conducted to establish the strength and direction of the association among the constructs. Finally, a regression analysis was performed to determine the predictive relationship between the constructs. The results of this study indicated positive significant correlations between the factors of QWL, job satisfaction and happiness. Regarding model 1, QWL was entered as the independent variable, and job satisfaction as the dependent variable. With reference to model 2, the independent variable was job satisfaction and happiness the dependent variable. Regression analysis indicated positive predictive relationships between the five factors of QWL and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and happiness. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the workload of academics should be reassessed to reduce pressure, task overload and mental exhaustion that will negatively impact on the QWL. Furthermore, employee involvement in decision making should be introduced to improve academics' job satisfaction. Finally, self-efficacy should be considered to assist academics to have confidence in their abilities to complete their work or achieve their goals.
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    The relationship between perceived organisational support, frustration with work and occupational commitment among public secondary school educators in the Sedibeng West District
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-09) Ekujumi, Temidire Messiah; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Radebe, P., Prof.
    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived organisational support, frustration with work and occupational commitment among public secondary school educators in the Sedibeng West District. The social exchange theory, expectancy theory and side-bet theory constituted the bedrock in this study. In order to achieve the primary objective, a quantitative research approach was adopted, and a descriptive survey research design was utilised. The reliability of the measuring instrument was confirmed satisfactory, and thereafter the questionnaires were self-administered to three hundred and seventy-three educators, HODs, deputy principals and principals at nine public secondary schools using a convenience sampling technique. Two hundred and forty questionnaires were retrieved, constituting 64.3 percent response rate, and the data obtained was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 25.0 and the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) 25.0 for statistical analysis. The statistical analysis performed include descriptive statistics using frequencies, mean and standard deviation. Inferential statistics was utilised to determine the relationship between the two factors of perceived organisational support, frustration with work and occupational commitment. The inferential statistical methods used include Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis and structural equation modelling. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to confirm the factor structure of the constructs in the study, and to determine if the data fit the model. Six model fit indices were used to assess the measurement and structural model fit assessments, which include Chi-square value over degree of freedom (χ2/df), Goodness-of-fit index (GFI), Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), Norm fit index (NFI), Tucker Lewis index (TLI) and Comparative fit index (CFI). The results of the model fit indices indicated a satisfactory fit of the data with the measurement and structural models. Thereafter, path analysis was performed on the research model to measure the path coefficients in the research model. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to test the hypotheses and the results revealed that there was a significant negative relationship between the job-related factor and frustration with work; a significant negative relationship between the relationship factor and frustration with work; a significant negative relationship between frustration with work and occupational commitment; a significant positive relationship between the job-related factor and occupational commitment; and a non-significant positive relationship between the relationship factor and occupational commitment. The correlation analysis also showed that there was a moderately significant negative correlation between the job-related factor and frustration with work; a moderately significant negative correlation between the relationship factor and frustration with work; a strong positive correlation between frustration with work and occupational commitment; a moderately significant positive correlation between the job-related factor and occupational commitment; and a moderately significant positive correlation between the relationship factor and occupational commitment. The reliability of the measuring instrument in the main study was tested using Cronbach alpha coefficient and composite reliability, while the validity tests were confirmed using face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, predictive validity and discriminant validity. Based on the findings, recommendations were proposed to enhance the perception of organisational support among educators, HODs, deputy principals and principals; reduce the level of frustration with work; and foster increased level of commitment to the teaching profession.
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    Effects of supervisors’ leadership styles on job satisfaction in the logistics industry
    (2017) Tsepetsi, Tshepo Kingsley; Joubert, P. A.; Dhurup, M.
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of supervisors‟ leadership styles (transformational, transactional and passive-avoidance) on job satisfaction in the logistics industry. This study advocates the way in which employees perceive their supervisors‟ leadership styles and their influence on job satisfaction. The fact is that employees play an indispensable role in the realisation of an organisation’s goals and therefore it would be more crucial for an organisation to have employees who are willing to go beyond what is required of them. In this study, a quantitative research method was used to investigate a sample size of 201 employees working in logistics departments in organisations situated in Southern Gauteng. In choosing a sampling method, convenience sampling method was used mainly because respondents were readily accessible and available to the researcher and also willing to participate in the study. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and the results of the correlation analysis revealed that transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidance leadership styles are significantly and positively related to job satisfaction. Based on the findings of the empirical survey, it was revealed that a positive association was found between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. A negative correlation was found between transactional, passive-avoidance and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the regression analysis showed that a transformational leadership style positively influences job satisfaction. Therefore, it was recommended that, to address negative correlations between transactional leadership styles on job satisfaction, supervisors/managers elicit desired performance from subordinates by motivating them externally. This can be done by rewarding subordinates for behaving in the expected manner and punishing them if they deviate. It was also recommended that to address negative correlation between passive-avoidance leadership style and job satisfaction supervisors/managers ought to give subordinates autonomy to make their own decisions and be able to solve work-related problems independently. It is further recommended that since passive-avoidance leadership style is associated with unproductiveness, supervisors/managers avoid the use of such a leadership style. The study concludes by recommending that a newer style of leadership such as authentic leadership can be introduced in order to influence employee job satisfaction positively. Servant leadership style can also be applied as this may influence job satisfaction positively. The findings and recommendations of this study are important for supervisors/managers employed in the logistics industry since they provide insight regarding the styles of leadership that are more effective in influencing employee job satisfaction positively. The implications for future research offer several opportunities in the area of leadership and job satisfaction. The study used a quantitative research design whereas the use of a mixed method approach may provide more meaningful results. Since the sample size was restricted, the study could also be expanded to include employees from other departments, such as finances, human resource and marketing.
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    JOB SATISFACTION AND INTENTION TO QUIT OF EMPLOYEES IN NON- GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN SWAZILAND
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2017) Msibi, W.N; Janse van Rensburg, C; Joubert, P.A
    The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe the factors contributing to job satisfaction among employees of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Swaziland and to understand the drivers leading employees to think of quitting. Non-governmental organisations are institutions that provide employment opportunities in addition to the private sector and government institutions. The success of NGOs is determined by the availability and commitment of efficient and effective human resources. However, currently, most NGOs are highly affected by staff turnover and, therefore, the quality of the service they provide to the beneficiaries is affected and the financial and non-financial costs of filling vacant posts is significantly increased. To investigate this, a quantitative study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. A total of 300 employees working in NGOs throughout Swaziland were invited to complete the questionnaire and 197 useable responses were collected. The reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha) and construct validity (factor analysis) of the questionnaire were determined. This questionnaire was found to be reliable and valid. The statistical results obtained in this study showed that both forms of job satisfaction (intrinsic and extrinsic) have an inverse relationship with employees’ intentions to quit and that intrinsic job satisfaction was found to have a stronger influence on intention to quit.
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    Job satisfaction and absenteeism among selected private security companies in the Southern Gauteng Region
    (2018-03-01) Mokote, Limpho Cynthia
    ABSTRACT Keywords: job satisfaction, absenteeism and private security companies Organisations are faced with the challenge of satisfying their employees in order for them to cope with the competitive environment. In order to increase productivity, efficiency and effectiveness and to show commitment in their work, organisations must ensure that they satisfy the needs of employees to avoid absenteeism. Over the past years, organisations have attempted to find solutions for recovering and developing management of employees’ resource, placing more emphasis on the reduction of employees’ work absenteeism. Management within the organisations has introduced different methods such as teamwork, shift work system and employee motivation as strategies to improve employees’ satisfaction, motivation and reducing absenteeism with the aim of improving overall organisational performance. Absence from work is a complex issue that can be influenced by multiple causes within an organisation or could be personal in nature. The purpose of this study is to examine job satisfaction and absenteeism among entry level security officers within the Southern Gauteng region. A quantitative methodology with a non-probability survey administered to a convenience sampling was used to examine the relationship between the study constructs. In the empirical investigation, a sample of 200 was selected to participate in the study. In order to measure the study constructs, two survey materials were adapted. The participants were asked to complete two test instruments, namely a job satisfaction questionnaire (JSS) and an absenteeism questionnaire. Of the 200 questionnaires that were distributed to the identified sample of entry level security officers, 199 (n) responded. The collected data were computed through correlations analysis to evaluate the relationship between variables and the results are presented and discussed in detail. The findings of this study showed a low level of job satisfaction among entry level security officers in this particular region of Southern Gauteng. The three factors found to influence job satisfaction among security officers are lack of support from management, operating conditions and stimulating tasks. Furthermore, pay, promotion, supervision, benefits, rewards, operating conditions, relationship with co-workers and lack of communication seem to be correlated negatively with the personal, supervisory, work and organisational factors of absenteeism. Through ANOVA, three of the job satisfaction factors indicate significant variances. Differences were found for the operating conditions (p=0.000; p<0.055), co-workers (p=0.000; p<0.05), communication (p=0.000; p<0.05) and the type of employment. Further, the reliability of the job satisfaction and absenteeism sub-scales were found to be reliable. It is recommended that private security industry management could explore the relevance of the various job satisfaction factors that could influence the job and potentially cause low satisfaction among entry level security officers. The outcome of such a process could guide future actions aimed at improved job satisfaction. The private security sector should consider the implications of their staffing practices. It is recommended that terms of employment should be more permanent in nature to aid overall job satisfaction.
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    Educators’ perceptions of operational competencies required in public schools
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2012-07) Chalmers, Janet
    An educator is more than a person who just transmits knowledge. An educator plays many different roles in the lives of learners, colleagues and their immediate community. Educators have the opportunity to influence the community, develop learners holistically, create lifelong learners and reflective thinkers. For an educator to demonstrate such competence across a range of teaching roles and contexts, a vast range of operational competencies are required. The purpose of this study was to examine secondary school educators‟ perceptions of the operational competencies required to function in public schools. The literature study explored the roles of the educator and the operational competencies needed to function in a secondary school. A quantitative survey in the form of a questionnaire was used in the study to analyse the level of agreement that educators attached to certain operational competencies. The level of agreement indicated by the educators is likely to indicate the level of importance that they attach to the operational competency. A probability sampling technique in the form of simple random sampling was used in this study. Random samples were drawn from educators in secondary public schools in the Fezile Dabi and Sedibeng districts. A sample size of 280 educators was used. Of the 280 questionnaires that were administered, 49 were not returned and 20 were incomplete, resulting in 211 usable questionnaires. The results of the survey indicated that the competency factors that educators perceived to be of importance were: communication and behaviour management, interpersonal relationships, planning and assessment, leadership skills and perseverance and organisational commitment. The level of correlation of these identified factors with teaching satisfaction was also assessed- indicating that interpersonal relationships had the highest correlation with teaching satisfaction and factors like planning and assessment, organisational commitment and communication and behaviour management had a moderate influence on teaching satisfaction. v Leadership skills and perseverance do not have a great influence on teaching satisfaction. The value of the research is that it makes a useful contribution for planners in the Department of Education of South Africa by making them aware of the operational competencies required by educators in public schools. The results of the research could be used to develop the operational competencies that are not perceived by educators to be of importance and to enhance the teaching satisfaction of educators.