Theses and Dissertations (Business Administration)

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    Motives for volunteering in sport organisations and the relationship with volunteer commitment and volunteer satisfaction
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-01) Tshabalala, Lebamang Francis; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Mokoena, B. A., Prof.
    Volunteering is a core component of sport service delivery and remains essential to the viability of the sport system in many sport organisations and communities. To this end, it has become incumbent for them to ensure that a sufficient pool of volunteers exists. Despite this assertion that volunteers in sport organisations are considered such a valuable resource, they are increasingly scarce and there is a considerable debate about the underlying structure or dimensionality of volunteer motives. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine motives for volunteering in sport organisations within Gauteng province and its relationships with volunteer commitment and volunteer satisfaction. This research drew from the convergence of the social exchange and self-determination theories that were used in this study to provide a theoretical understanding as to why people engage in volunteer work and the outcomes thereof. In order to achieve the primary objective of the study, a quantitative research approach was adopted and a cross-sectional descriptive survey was utilised. A non-probability convenience sampling procedure was also adopted. Prior to the main survey data collection, a pilot study was undertaken by administering a questionnaire to 40 participants who did not form part of the main survey. The main survey data was thereafter acquired from 270 volunteers from conveniently selected sport organisations within Gauteng province through a structured self-administered questionnaire. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 26.0) and the reliability and validity analysis yielded satisfactory results in terms of the measuring instrument. Descriptive statistics were also computed to summarise the data into usable information by making use of frequencies, means and standard deviations. Exploratory factor analysis was used to statistically aggregate the large number of observed measures (28 items) relating to independent variable (volunteer motives) into a smaller set of three unobserved (latent) variables called factors while regression and correlation analysis were undertaken to establish the relationships among the study constructs in line with the objectives of the study. Results fromcorrelation and regression analysis respectively (r = 0.440; β= .410) revealed that volunteer motives significantly contribute towards enhancing volunteer commitment among volunteers in sport organisations. Furthermore, the study’s results indicated that volunteer commitment, in turn, contributes towards volunteer satisfaction of volunteers in sport organisations (r = 0.561; β= .561). Based on these results, this study recommends, among others, that management of sport organisations should explore the effectiveness of implementing an internal system of self-evaluation as a starting point to examine motives for volunteering. Furthermore, it is recommended that sport organisation management should develop an organisational culture which assigns authority and responsibility to sport volunteers. The study concludes by affirming the achievement of the study’s objectives, highlighting its limitations as well as identifying future research opportunities.
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    The influence of employee fit dimensions on job satisfaction, organisational citizenship behaviour and intention to stay in selected South African municipalities
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021) Masoka, Josiah Coba; Joubert, P. A., Prof.; Dhurup, M., Prof.
    Given the inevitable changes and dynamics in the nature of the global market, the recruitment, attraction, employment, motivation and retention of valuable workers has become critical for the continued success of both employees and organisations. Organisations are continuously faced with the dilemma of uncovering and understanding employment packages that are essential in attracting fitting individuals to join their establishment and remain in such organisations for a longer period of time. Similarly, people spend a substantial amount of effort and time searching for organisations and jobs that matches their qualifications and skills; fulfil their specific needs, while meeting their goals and values. This study investigated the influence employee fit dimensions (person-job fit, person-environment fit and person-organisation fit) on job satisfaction, organisational citizenship behaviour and intention to stay. These different conceptualisations of fit have typically been studied independently, but this study responded to calls that proposed for a study that incorporated multiple types of employee fit dimensions in a single study. When deliberating on the different fit concepts, some empirical evidence confirmed the existing conceptual distinctions between the three types of fit such as person-job fit, person-environment fit, and person-organisation fit and how each fit dimension positively or negatively influences job satisfaction and the extent to which job satisfaction influences organisational citizenship behaviour. Furthermore, the study examined the influence of organisational citizenship dimension on intention to stay. This study is embedded in a post-positivist quantitative research paradigm. The positivism paradigm was adopted as its underlying philosophy is grounded on cause-effect relationships amongst constructs within a given theoretical model. Since the study was descriptive in nature, the reliability and validity of data was analysed and correlation analysis and regression analysis were also computed. The exploratory factor analysis was performed using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test and the Bartlett’s test of sphericity in order to examine the appropriateness of data for factor analysis and to establish the interrelationship amongst constructs. Preceding the main study’s data collection process, a pilot survey was undertaken to examine the correctness and accuracy of the questionnaire. The data collected were examined with the use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 25.0. The KMO values of all the constructs were above 0.80 which is well within the acceptable value of 0.50. Normality tests were performed using the skewness and kurtosis values and the standard deviation values ranged from 0.65311 to 1.05471 indicating that data was normally distributed. To confirm the consistency of the measuring instrument and its items, reliability tests were carried out and the results indicated that all the constructs were within range (0.786 to 0.891), having surpassed the threshold for reliability of 0.70. The results of the consistency of measures demonstrated that the measuring instrument was reliable. The correlation analysis revealed that there is a strong relationship between person-job fit, person-environment fit, person-organisation fit and job satisfaction. The results further disclosed a moderate association between job satisfaction with altruism, courtesy and civic virtue. A negative relationship is reported between job satisfactions and sportsmanship. A weak but positive relationship is shown between job satisfaction and conscientiousness. The results further indicate a moderate relationship between altruism, conscientiousness and intention to stay. The relationship between courtesy, sportsmanship and intention to stay is reportedly weak. The results indicate that a positive relationship exists between civic virtue and intention to stay. Regression analysis was also performed in order to establish the predictive relationships between variables. The regression analysis results indicate that person-job fit, person-environment fit and person-organisation fit are positive predictors of job satisfaction. Further, altruism, courtesy, civic virtue and conscientiousness contributed positively towards predicting job satisfaction. The results further reveal that sportsmanship showed no relationship with job satisfaction and weak predictor of job satisfaction. The results of the regression analysis further revealed that altruism, courtesy, civic virtue and conscientiousness showed no predictive relationship with intention to stay. However, sportsmanship showed strong predictive relationship towards intention to stay. The study proposes both the theoretical and practical contributions to the organisational behaviour and human resource management literature in the form of recommendations. Limitations and implications for further research is alluded to. The outcome of this study advanced a framework of the influence of employee fit dimensions on job satisfaction, organisational citizenship behaviour and intention to stay which may possibly benefit future researchers.
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    Internal drivers of innovation and sustainability in South African manufacturing small and medium enterprises
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-01) Mofokeng, Simon Abram; Mafini, C., Prof.; Chinomona, E., Prof.
    The study aimed to analyse the relationship between internal management systems, innovativeness, and the sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) within the South African manufacturing sector. Most of the studies in this regard were mainly focusing on large and well-established companies, and the focus would be found to be aligned to only one variable. Studies with reference to SMEs where a linkage amongst the variables is clearly established are limited, thereby providing an impetus to conduct this study. As a result of the changes taking place daily in technology and business operational policies, SMEs typically have to revisit their internal management systems, level of innovativeness, and sustainable measures. Such methods are intended to promote their existence, survival, and growth into the unforeseeable future. A quantitative method based on a positivistic research paradigm was adopted in undertaking the study. The sample consisted of 500 respondents, who were owners, managers, and employees of SMEs in Gauteng Province. The collected data were tested using descriptive and inferential statistics, including Exploratory Factor Analysis, Pearson Correlations and Regression Analysis. Application of factor analysis led to the extraction of two additional SME sustainability factors, namely Employee Training Outcomes and Corporate Compliance to Policy. Of the three internal management systems, only two factors, namely infrastructure development and employee training outcomes, exerted a significant positive influence on innovation. In turn, innovation exerted a significant positive influence on two SME sustainability factors, namely the nature of the product and social sustainability. The study has several implications. Theoretically, the study provides information on how internal management systems relate to innovation. As indicated in the results, only infrastructure development and employee training outcomes exert an influence on innovation and should thus be prioritised when attempting to improve the extent of innovation within SMEs. Likewise, innovation in SMEs results in benefits in terms of the nature of the product and social sustainability only. Practically, the study recommends that there is a need by the South African government through the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Department to review their approach on SMEs so that they can obtain adequate resources to enhance their business success. Additionally, there is a need for both governmental and non-governmental organisations to develop initiatives where SMEs go through the incubation process. During this process, training and business advisory services will be offered for free to equip owner-managers with the relevant business skills. Areas of further research, as well as limitations, were also discussed.
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    A comparative study of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions amongst students at selected South African institutions of higher education
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-01) Matsheke, Moses Jametane; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Mafini, C., Prof.
    Entrepreneurial intention (EI) is considered as an element used by researchers to measure the propensity of individuals to become entrepreneurs. Higher education institutions (HEIs) have been utilised globally by governments as mechanisms to increase the EIs of students by establishing entrepreneurship as an academic discipline and instituting entrepreneurship programmes at all educational levels. However, in South Africa, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) reports a decline in EIs in the last decade of the population aged 18-64 years. The current study investigated the influence of the entrepreneurship education (EE) at one selected Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) college and a University of Technology (UOT) located in the Gauteng Province, South Africa through a comparative analysis. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) were used as theories to underpin the study. In addition, Self-efficacy (SE), Need to Achieve (NA) and Instrumental Readiness (IR) were included as constructs to examine further variables for EIs. The study adopted a survey design and followed a quantitative research approach in determining the relationship between the identified variables. A self-administered survey questionnaire was used to gather the data from the sampled students at the selected HEIs. The total number of usable questionnaires was 390 from the TVET college and 362 from the UOT, giving a total of 752 responses. The empirical analysis was performed by means of the descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Pearson correlations, and regression analysis. The descriptive analysis procedure was utilised to examine the demographic profile of the respondents as well as the perceptions of the respondents towards the research constructs of the study. The EFA procedure confirmed that all measurement scales applied in the study were unidimensional. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the linear association between the constructs while the regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results of the hypotheses tests revealed that EE was statistically significant in predicting the EI of the students from both the TVET college and UOT. The tests further revealed that EE was also statistically significant in predicting the Attitude towards Behaviour (ATB), Subjective Norm (SN), Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC), SE, NA and IR of the students from both HEIs in a similar manner. However, PBC, SE, and NA were found to be statistically insignificant for the TVET college students while for the UOT students only SN, NA and IR were statistically insignificant. The study concludes that EE is an important tool that can be used to enhance the EI of the students at both types of HEIs. It further draws the conclusion that students from the TVET college are more dependent on external factors such as the support of their families and friends as well as the availability of resources to start thinking of starting their own business, whereas those from the UOT are more reliant on internal motivation. Based on the results, the study recommends that subjects in the curriculum in HEIs should have a learning unit dedicated to stimulating entrepreneurship amongst students. Such an approach might inspire students to venture into entrepreneurship.
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    Corporate social responsibility, reputation and performance in the mining sector in Zimbabwe
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-01) Zuva, Joseph; Van der Westhuizen, J. P., Dr.; Mafini, C., Prof.
    The world over the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has gradually evolved from a theoretical concept to a managerial tool used to shape organisational competitiveness. Thus, this study sought to establish the influence of CSR on reputation and performance in the mining sector in Zimbabwe, given the limited evidence of such studies in the body of knowledge. The framework for data collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation was guided by the positivist paradigm, quantitative approach, and descriptive survey design. With the questionnaire being utilised to collect data from 330 respondents who were purposively and conveniently sampled from the targeted mines. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient was employed to test for the validity and reliability of the designed instrument. In addition, the Pearson’s correlation was used to determine relationships between constructs, while regression analysis was used to predict the reputation value based on causality. In addition, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed to determine the factor structure of the data collected based on the relationship of constructs and items. The analysed data revealed that most respondents, through descriptive statistics, agreed with the construct items except political corporate social responsibility (PCSR), which had the least mean score of (4.7311). This implied that the respondents somewhat agreed PCSR was being observed though at marginal levels. The other constructs stakeholder corporate social responsibility (SCSR), environment corporate social responsibility (ENCSR), ethical corporate social responsibility (ETCSR), and social corporate responsibility (SOCSR) had mean scores above 4, indicating that respondents agreed that CSR was being observed to retain a reputable image. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed that four of the stated hypotheses supported the assumption on SCSR, ETCSR, operational performance (OP), and social performance (SP). Furthermore, the results revealed that PCSR, ENCSR, SOCSR, and economic performance (EP) could not be used to support reputation. The results on the hypotheses statements confirmed the empirical literature assumptions. Thus, partnerships, trust, honesty, disclosure, competitive advantage, operational efficiency, values based on morality, and transparency were confirmed to be by-products of CSR practices. Based on this, it can be argued that mining firms in Zimbabwe could employ CSR as a strategic tool to handle stakeholders’ concerns. In this regard, a theoretical model was crafted for the mining sector in Zimbabwe, which reduced independent variables to two, namely the SCSR and ETCSR. Hence the results established a strong positive association between PSCR, SCSR, SOCSR, ENCSR, ETCSR, and corporate reputation (CR). In addition, corporate performance was seen to have a positive impact on OP and SP. Based on the above results, it is recommended that mining companies in Zimbabwe fully embrace CSR as a vehicle for engaging with stakeholders. More so, CSR programmes should be done in consultation with stakeholders, especially surrounding communities that host or provide an operating environment. Furthermore, mining companies should be wary of the cultural effects of their operations through the crafting and implementation of ethical policies. This can further be enhanced through CSR reporting on CSR initiatives and programmes.
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    The contribution of innovation capabilities to business performance in state owned enterprises in South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-04) Marweshe, Sefako Isaiah; Van der Westhuizen, J. P., Dr.; Mafini, C., Prof.
    State owned enterprises (SOEs) form one of the largest sectors within the economy in many countries and are important contributors to national development. They globally make up a greater part of the national gross domestic product (GDP). However, the performance of most SOEs in developing countries, such as South Africa, is substandard, prompting practitioners and researchers to continue searching for lasting solutions. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of innovation capabilities to market and business performance in SOEs in South Africa. The study followed a quantitative survey research method. A self-completion questionnaire was distributed to a purposive sample of 278 professional employees and managers in a selected South African SOE who were based in three provinces, namely, Gauteng, North-West and the Free State provinces. The collected data were analysed using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 25.0) and Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS version 25.0). The techniques used to analyse the data include descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling to test the hypotheses. Out of the seven hypotheses tested in this study, six were accepted. Innovative strategy, market innovation and technological innovation all significantly predicted market competitiveness. Market competitiveness significantly predicted three business performance dimensions, namely, environmental, financial, and operational. The study proposes a unique model for managing the contribution of innovation capabilities to business performance in SOEs in South Africa. Theoretically, the study contributes to the existing body of knowledge since it is an addition to the available literature on innovation capabilities and performance of SOEs. Practically, in the study for the optimisation of market competitiveness and business performance, in SOEs, emphasis should be placed on understanding and considering the appropriate innovation capabilities as input factors.
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    The influence of perceptions of organisational justice on job satisfaction among administrative staff at a university of technology in South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020) Cana, Nolubabalo; Joubert, P. A., Prof.; Grobler, B., Prof.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of organisational justice on job satisfaction among administrative staff members at a university of technology in South Africa. A critical function of the administrative staff at a university of technology is to ensure that all students and other staff members are assisted as effectively and efficiently as possible. Administrative staff at a university of technology in South Africa needs to be committed and have a high morale to ensure that the vision of the University of Technology is fulfilled. This study promotes the application of the Equity Theory. People prefer to work in an environment that is perceived as just. Employees will experience satisfaction with their job in terms of Equity when the Equity Theory is applied fairly. However, inequity will lead to tension at the workplace. In order for the administrative staff at a university of technology in South Africa to function effectively, it is essential for a university of technology to ensure that their administrative staff is satisfied. In this study, a quantitative approach was undertaken to gain an understanding of the perception of organisational justice and its dimensions on job satisfaction. This involved distributing questionnaires to 200 administrative staff at a university of technology in South Africa. Two primary tests were used to assess the suitability of the data for factor analysis. These tests are the Kaiser-Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s test of sphericity. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlations among the constructs. A means analysis was conducted to assess the perceptions of the employeesin respect of distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice and job satisfaction. Regression analysis was executed to examine whether the independent variables of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice predict the dependent variable job satisfaction. The Cronbach alpha coefficient test provided an adequate indication of reliability of the instrument. Face/content, construct and convergent validity methods were applied to establish validity of the study. A positive relationship between organisational justice and job satisfaction was found in this study. The administrative staff will be able to improve the job satisfaction levels of other administrative staff by making positive improvements when applying organisational justice to influence the various elements of job satisfaction identified in this study. This will effectively enable administrative staff to meet the challenge of providing improved service. The proper implementation of organisational justice will, ultimately, lead to the organisations’ success, as well as the progression of its employees. Since a university of technology depends on human resources, the organisation is required to assess the current organisational justice practices and create a working environment that stimulates and motivates employees so that their job satisfaction levels increase. The recommendations proposed for this study offer vital information on organisational justice practices that could assist a university of technology to improve the perceptions of administrative staff. Accordingly, the application can improve employees’ low morale resulting from perceived unfairness and injustice, thereby increasing the job satisfaction levels among administrative staff. The findings of the research may generate guidelines for organisational justice practices. Recommendations include a systematic and transparent reward system that recognises employees’ excellent performance and rewards them accordingly. Another recommendation is the creation of a well-structured consultative forum to grant employees an opportunity to provide management with their perceptions of unfair practices. Future research should extend to other sectors within the public sector environment, as well as expanding the research to include several other job satisfactionelements. Further, research using both mediation and moderation to investigate the associations between organisational justice and job satisfaction is recommended.
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    Business growth challenges and opportunities facing small and medium enterprises in the Sedibeng region
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-03) Ngobena, Nadege Ngonkem; Hove-Sibanda, Progress, Prof.; Mafini, Chengedzai, Prof.
    The role of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is to stimulate economic growth and competitiveness in many countries. The same applies to South Africa, where the SME sector has grown tremendously to become the engine and the lifeblood of the economy by becoming a contributor to social and economic development through employment creation and constant input to the gross domestic product. However, despite these contributions, South African SMEs face numerous challenges and opportunities which might negatively or positively impact their prospects for growth, success and sustainability. This study aimed to investigate the business growth challenges and opportunities facing SMEs in the Sedibeng Region. Through a review of literature, some challenges were identified, namely, the limited access to financial, managerial competencies, economic variable, regulations and laws, crime and corruption and lack of appropriate technology and high cost of production. Despite these challenges, SMEs are faced with some opportunities which have been created by the government to facilitate their growth, with examples including the SEDA, Ntsika Apex Fund, Khula, the National Small Business Act, Black Economic Empowerment, National Development Plan (NDP) and the Local Economic Development (LED). A four-section questionnaire was then developed using adapted measurement scales and distributed to 230 SMEs in the Sedibeng region. Respondents were selected using the non-probability convenience sampling technique. The collected data were analysed using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS (Version 25.0). After testing for validity and reliability, descriptive statistics were applied in testing the perceptions of respondents towards the challenges, opportunities and business growth. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to assess the factor structure of the collected data. Pearson correlations were used to test for the strength and direction of associations between challenges, opportunities and business growth. Regression analysis was applied in testing whether challenges, opportunities and business growth (business sustainability and external business aspects). Two SME challenges, namely, crime and technology and economic aspects, were extracted in the EFA. Additionally, two SME opportunity factors, namely ‘information technology’ and ‘environment’ were extracted in the EFA. In the same procedure, two SME growth factors, namely, external business aspects and business sustainability, were extracted. Pearson correlation analysis revealed positive and significant associations between all challenges, opportunities and business growth factors. In the regression analysis, both challenges and opportunities positively and significantly predicted SME growth. The study concludes by suggesting recommendations for limiting the impact of the identified challenges on business performance.
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    Developing a competency framework for broad-based black economic empowerment verification practitioners
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2014) Seate, Barbara Makhosazana; Chinomona, Richard, Prof.; Pooe, David, Prof.
    The influence of measuring Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE) is becoming a vital issue in organisations simply because it affects the organisation in different ways. Organisations seek ways to improve their B-BBEE status level in order to be conducive when conducting business and they believe that B-BBEE is necessary. The B-BBEE verification agencies are responsible for carrying out a factual, thorough evaluation of a measured entity’s B-BBEE status and, based on the result, for determining a B-BBEE score. The overall aim of conducting verification is to give confidence to all parties that rely upon the score set out in the verification certificate that the information on which the certificate is based has been tested for validity and accuracy. The study provided more information on how verification agencies can improve their competencies and how this affects the Department of Trade and Industry and the verification agencies. The study focused on educating the verification agencies and the Department of Trade and Industry about the importance and processes of developing a competency framework. Its purpose was to develop a competency framework for verification agencies. A survey consisted of about 300 verification practitioners employed by 80 verification agencies. Data was collected using the consensus sampling technique. All of these practitioners constituted a ‘universe’ or ‘population’ and 87 respondents were utilised. The Social Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and AMOS software packages were used for descriptive and factor analysis. Finally, the findings for the study are highlighted and the conclusions, implications and recommendations drawn.
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    Leadership power bases' influences on quality of work life and intention to stay among employees at a selected retail outlet
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-03) Maphanga, Mbali Eveltha; Isabirye, A. K., Dr.; Mokoena, B. A., Prof.
    Retailing refers to the activities involved in selling goods or services to the final consumer for personal use as opposed to business purposes. It is a socio-economic system that gets people together to interchange goods and services for a small payment, which matches the final consumers’ needs. In South Africa, the industry has grown by a yearly average of 3 percent in the past eight years and Gauteng, as a province, contributed 26.5 percent to this growth. Therefore, the retail industry has been growing at a very slow rate. Letooane (2013:2) asserts that that there is a need for research in leadership power bases, QWL and how best the needs of employees can be satisfied to improve their intention to stay. In this reard, the primary objective of the study was to examine the relationship between leadership power bases, quality of work life (QWL) and intention to stay among employees at a selected retail outlet in Gauteng province. The research methodology applied to conduct the study was a consolidation of a literature review and an empirical study.The study focused on the work of French and Raven (1959) power sources, namely coercive, legitimate, reward, referent and expert power. It also looked at QWL as the nature of the workforce in retail today is generally very different from the workforce of the past decades. In addition, the study explored how QWL will assist retailers in enhancing their employees’ intention to stay. A quantitative research approach was followed in this study and a simple random probability sampling method was adopted. A structured questionnaire, divided into four sections, was utilised to survey 300 (both male and female) employees from three branches of the selected retail company in the Daveyton township. The pilot study preceded the main survey and the internal consistency reliability was ascertained. Of the 300 questionnaires distributed to the participants, a total of 285 responses were usable for data analysis (response rate of 95 percent). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 25.0, was used to analyse data into descriptive statistics, reliability and validity analysis, correlations and finally, regression analysis, which was used to test the relationship among the constructs under investigation. The results indicated that coercive power base (β=0.456) and legitimate power base (β=0.210) contribute positively to the prediction of QWL, while reward power indicated a negative prediction of QWL (β= -0.044). Furthermore, the influence of QWL towards employees’ intention to stay was represented by a positive beta weight of (β=0.754). Additionally, all Cronbach’s alpha values ranged from 0.764 to 0.913, (exceeding the threshold of 0.7) thus suggesting that all the items in the scale tap into the same underlying constructs. Results from this research study will assist retailers to increase the QWL levels in their companies by advancing the factors that were identified in this research study. Additionally, these results may enable retail store managers to comprehensively understand how employees perceive power bases and how these employees’ perceptions influence QWL and, subsequently, their intention to stay. The implications of the results are addressed as well as the limitations of the study and future research opportunities are further identified.
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    Strategic planning and its alignment with the budgeting process in selected national government departments
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-11) Matshidza, Namadzavho Violet; Radebe, P. Q., Prof.
    South African government departments, through the relevant executing authority, are required to develop strategic plans in terms of the Public Service Amendment Act (Act No. 30 of 2007) and Public Finance Management Amendment Act (Act No. 29 of 1999). In terms of Treasury Regulation, 2005 section 6, the government departments are further required to comply with budgetary requirements. The key question in this research was to what extent is the strategic planning process aligned to the budgeting process. In light of the research question, the research objective was to investigate the alignment of the strategic planning and budgeting processes in the selected national government departments. In order to achieve the aforementioned research objective, structured questionnaires were distributed to 300 senior managers in the selected government departments of which 203 were completed and retrieved. The government departments that participated in the study were selected using the non-probability convenient sampling technique. A quantitative approach was followed, in which case a survey was used to garner data, which were analysed using statistical analytical methods, such as the means, standard deviations, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis. The five factors of strategic planning were extracted from the strategic planning questionnaire data and were coined strategic analysis and assessment (SAA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), goal setting (GS), responsibilities and resource allocation (RRA), and information system (IS). Correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive relationship between the five factors of the strategic planning process and the budgeting process. The regression analysis results confirmed the existence of a predictive relationship between the five factors of strategic planning and the budgeting process. The conclusion from this finding confirmed the alignment of strategic planning with the budgeting process in the selected national government departments. The internal consistency of the measuring instrument was tested by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, while its validity was measured using face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity and predictive validity. In spite of the positive correlation and regression analyses, recommendations were made to improve the strategic planning and budgeting processes.
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    People-centred knowledge management systems and supply chain performance: the case of small and medium enterprises in Zimbabwe
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021-03) Tarambiwa, E.; Garnett, A., Dr.; Mafini, C., Prof.
    The Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) sector has been receiving increased global attention from governments, researchers and management practitioners in both developed and developing nations as a vehicle for economic growth. The Zimbabwean SME sector has been on record as minimising the impact of the economic challenges on the economy thus proving the strategic role played by the SME sector in improving economic growth. Therefore, the Zimbabwean government has high hopes of resuscitating the economy through empowering the SME sector. However, the sector is inundated by challenges that have retarded its effectiveness in achieving the government’s expectations. Some key limitations and challenges include short life span of the SMEs, entrenchment of archaic business practices, lack of financial capitalisation and the failure to adopt a supply chain perspective of business. Although several solutions to the problem have been proposed and implemented, one solution that has not been fully tested relates to how people-centred knowledge management systems (KMSs) can be harnessed to improve the performance of SME supply chains in Zimbabwe. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between people-centred KMSs, knowledge sharing and supply chain performance (SCP) in the Zimbabwean SME sector. The study adopted a quantitative research method in which a survey design was implemented in collecting the data that were used to test the relationships on people-centred KMSs (i.e. communities of practice (CoPs), innovation management, organisational culture and social capital); knowledge sharing and SCP (i.e. time-related performance (TRP), cost-related performance (CRP), responsiveness-related performance (RRP) and operation quality-related performance (OQRP). A structured survey questionnaire was designed using measurement scales adapted from extant literature and it was administered to a sample of 580 SME owners, managers and employees who had some prior understanding of knowledge management, information technology and supply chain management. The collected data were analysed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 25.0 and the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) Version 25.0 statistical software. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The statistical techniques used included measures of central tendency, cross-tabulations, factor analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, path analysis and structural equation modelling. The results of the study showed that SME employer qualifications (Kendall-tau = 0.88; p=.000), work experience (Kendall-tau = 0.86; p=.001) and nationality (Kendall-tau = 0.79; p=.010) as well as SME business sector (Kendall-tau = 0.89; p=.000) can be used to predict SME life span in the Zimbabwe SME sector. The results also showed significant relationships between three people-centred KMSs, namely, CoP (β=0.639, t=9.656, p=0.000), innovation management (β =-0.337, t=-8.578, p=0.000) and organisational culture (β=-0.261, t=-4.083, p=0.000) and knowledge sharing. The relationship between social capital and knowledge sharing was insignificant (β=-0.076, t=0.177, p=0.859). Significant relationships were also realised on knowledge sharing and three process-based SCP sub- factors, namely, TRP (β=0.231, t=4.717, p=0.000), CRP (β=-0.082, t=-2.015, p=0.044) and RRP (β=-0.177, t=-3.621, p=0.000). No relationship was found between knowledge sharing and OQRP (β=-0.076, t=0.049, p=0.254). Moreover, knowledge sharing was found to have a full mediation effect on people-centred KMSs and process-based SCP while no mediation effect was found with network-based SCP. The study makes substantial contributions to the existing body of knowledge. Theoretically, it provides in-depth insights of people-centred KMSs in SME SCP for developing countries such as Zimbabwe, which is an under researched area, thus expanding extant literature on the subject. From a knowledge management perspective, the study proposes the utilisation of SMEs’ socio-demographic factors to predict SMEs’ continued existence, thereby enabling financial institutions to offer financial assistance to such businesses with confidence. For governments in developing countries, the study suggests that specific attention should be directed to knowledge-based supply chains that adopt people-centred KMSs and process-based SCP to consider them as a possible alternative in addressing performance challenges in SME sectors.
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    Supply chain management practices, supplier performance and supply chain resilience in the South African public sector
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-10) Mugwenhi, Shephard; Bhadury, J., Prof.; Mafini, C., Prof.
    The most important decisions that direct the operations of a nation are made in the public sector. The public sector performs the duty of facilitating the efficient and sustainable delivery of goods and services to the general public. In South Africa, public sector institutions have failed to fulfil their role of providing effective services, and this failure has been attributed to corruption and other inconsistencies inherent within supply chain management (SCM) transactions occurring between government and its suppliers. To streamline SCM, various legislative pieces such as the public SCM Policy Framework, the Preferential Procurement Policy Framework (PPPF) and the Broad-Based Black-Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) Act, among others were implemented in tandem with a host of other interventions. However, the challenges linked to public SCM continue to this day and the intended outcomes are yet to be fully realised, thereby negatively impacting on the effective delivery of services by the public sector. This study investigated the relationship between SCM practices, supplier performance and supply chain resilience in the South African public sector. The study is premised on the need to investigate how SCM practices may be applied to improve the effectiveness of supplier performance, and hence the resilience of the public supply chain in South Africa, in light of the numerous challenges faced by the sector. This study followed a quantitative method in which a cross-sectional survey was applied to collect data to test the relationships between seven SCM practices (supply chain collaboration, supply chain synergies, supply chain innovation, information sharing, information quality, supply chain design, supply chain integration), supplier performance and supply chain resilience. A structured survey questionnaire was developed using adapted measurement scales and administered to 333 SCM professionals recruited from public sector organisations based in the Gauteng Province. The data collected were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 25.0) and the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS Version 25.0) statistical software. The actual data analysis techniques applied included descriptive and inferential statistics and hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling. The results of the study showed that three SCM practices, namely collaboration, innovation and integration exerted a significant positive influence on supplier performance. However, supply chain synergies, information quality and supply chain design were statistically insignificant. Moreover, information sharing exerted a significant negative influence on supplier performance. In turn, supplier performance exerted a significant positive influence on supply chain resilience. The study contributes in various ways to both public SCM theory and practice. Theoretically, it provides information on how the SCM dimensions considered in this study, which are supply chain collaboration, synergies, innovation, information sharing and quality, design, and integration are linked to supplier performance and supply chain resilience within the public sector in South Africa. Given the limited evidence of previous studies of this nature in the South African public sector, the results are an essential addition to the existing body of literature within the public SCM context in developing countries such as South Africa. From a managerial standpoint, the study provides information on which SCM practices deserve attention in the efforts to improve the performance of suppliers, and how the performance of suppliers can be harnessed to enhance the resilience of the public supply chain. Hence, the study offers an important diagnostic framework through which the SCM challenges facing the public supply chain in South Africa can be addressed.
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    Business strategy, financial performance and the survival of women-owned small and medium enterprises in Gauteng province
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021-04) Mudara, Zwanaka James; Mafini, C., Prof.
    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are economic drivers and key in job creation in emerging economies. In the past, the difficulties faced by women have deprived them of opportunities to establish and run successful businesses. Previous research reveals that women’s involvement in businesses creates sustainable economic growth, thereby reducing poverty. Women-owned SMEs in South Africa receive minimal government support, and many women lack the resources required to run a business successfully. Ensuring growth and profitability in women-run enterprises can alleviate the extent to which women have been disadvantaged in South Africa. In the Fourth Industrial Revolution, women have a significant role in creating jobs, which can grow the South African economy. This study aimed to determine the influence of strategy implementation in women-owned SMEs in South Africa, specifically Gauteng Province. The study considered constructs such as strategy implementation, financial performance and SME survival in women-owned SMEs. Against this background, a deductive reasoning based quantitative approach was adopted using a cross-sectional survey design to assess the connection between the constructs under consideration. The final sample consisted of 347 women entrepreneurs and managers and employees of selected SMEs in various regions of Gauteng Province. The data collected were analysed using the Statistical Packages for the Social Scientists (SPSS) version 25.0 software. Statistical analyses techniques applied in the study included descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, person correlations and regression analyses. The results of the study showed that corporate and business strategies exert a significant influence on SME financial performance. However, operational strategy was statistically insignificant. Financial performance, in turn, influenced SME survival. Additionally, all three strategies, namely, corporate, business and operational, significantly influenced SME survival. Thus, the financial performance and ultimate survival of women-owned SMEs in South Africa are both dependent on strategy formulation and implementation. The research is practical in that its results may be used as a reference source for ideas in strategy formulation and implementation in stakeholder committees. The results may then be directed towards alleviating the challenges facing women-owned SMEs in South Africa and stimulate their chances of success. The study, therefore, has implications in generating employment, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of women-owned SMEs. Theoretically, the study contributes by closing the gap in literature within the area of the nexus between strategy implementation, financial performance and SME survival in the context of South Africa.
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    Modelling transformational and transactional leadership, innovation and performance in selected South African Universities of Technology: a balanced scorecard perspective.
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-09) Mofokeng, G. L.; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Mafini, C., Prof.
    Universities of Technology are an essential institutional type in South African higher education. However, their performance often lags behind that of traditional and comprehensive universities, which inspires the need to use research to seek ways of improving them. This study focuses on the interconnection between transformational and transactional leadership, organisational innovation and performance in South African universities of technology. Performance was measured based on the balanced scorecard perspective. The study followed a quantitative method, using the views of 387 academic and non-academic professional respondents drawn from three South African universities of technology. Hypotheses were tested using correlations and regression analysis. The study identified three transformational leadership factors, namely idealised influence, intellectual stimulation and inspirational leadership that are relevant to the tested relationship. Six performance dimensions, namely internal growth, financial performance, internal processes, customer satisfaction, learning, and grants and income were also identified and used to measure performance. The three transformational leadership factors, idealised influence, intellectual stimulation and inspirational leadership all correlated with and predicted innovation. In turn, innovation correlated with and predicted the six performance factors (internal growth, financial performance, internal processes, customer satisfaction, learning, and grants and income). The study indicates that the transformational leadership style has a direct positive effect on institutional innovation in universities of technology. Furthermore, innovation is an important driver of performance. Therefore, universities of technology that place an emphasis on transformational leadership and innovation are likely to register superior performance.
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    The relationship between human resource management practices, corporate entrepreneurship and business performance in medium and large businesses in Gauteng Province.
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-11) Phillips, Magaret; Janse van Rensburg, C., Dr.; Van der Westhuizen, J. P., Dr.
    Globalisation is creating profound and substantial changes for businesses and industries throughout the world. These changes have forced businesses to re-evaluate their organisational philosophy and strategic approaches to become more competitive. Businesses in general have to deal with internal and external challenges. To address these challenges, there is a significant amount of written consensus internationally, which denotes that established businesses should encourage entrepreneurial activity throughout their operations to compete successfully on a continuous basis. Therefore, businesses should identify and implement entrepreneurial actions such as developing new products and ideas or adapt their internal processes to new situations. Corporate level entrepreneurship plays an indispensable role in improving productivity and promoting economic growth. Entrepreneurial activities can result from individual creativity or pursuit of self-interest and some of these activities could eventually receive the business’s formal recognition and thus become an integral part of the business concept. Entrepreneurial activities are often initiated by individuals within an organisation. Therefore, one way in which organisations can remain competitive in today’s rapidly changing environment is to address the issue of achieving productivity through their employees. Human resources can either hinder or encourage corporate entrepreneurship. This study addresses the relationship between human resource management practices, corporate entrepreneurship and business performance in medium and large businesses. Four hypotheses were put forward for testing. A quantitative, formal and cross-sectional approach was used. Data were collected using a survey and self-administered questionnaires were emailed to 744 human resource managers in medium and large businesses in Gauteng. A response rate of 47.6 percent was achieved as 351 usable questionnaires were received. Items in the questionnaire were adapted from previous studies. Factor analysis was conducted to test the validity and reliability of the research instrument. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to test the hypotheses. The empirical evidence indicated that corporate entrepreneurship is stimulated by better employee relations, selection practices, compensation, high levels of employee development and skills training. Selection and staffing are the most significant drivers of corporate entrepreneurship. The evidence further shows that human resource management practices influence business performance as well as that a positive relationship exists between innovation intensity and risk propensity, and business performance. The results also show that corporate entrepreneurship is a mediator between human resource management practices and business performance. As this was the first formal study conducted, which aimed to determine the influence of human resource management practices on corporate entrepreneurship and how it affects businesses performance, it can serve as a guideline for businesses in South Africa to assess their entrepreneurial intensity and corporate entrepreneurial climate.
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    The influence of organisational politics on job stress among small and medium enterprises employees in Matlosana Local District.
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2018-11) Letshaba, Ralebitso Kenneth; Dhurup, M., Prof.; Joubert, P. A., Dr.; Chinomona, E., Dr.
    Apart from the contribution and success of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) through job creation, poverty alleviation and economic growth, there are still organisational factors such as organisational politics and job stress, which hamper the success of these enterprises. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of organisational politics on job stress among SME employees in Matlosana Local District. The target population concentrated on SME employees within Matlosana Local District in North West province, with the population size of N=431 respondents. A quantitative approach was applied, with the use of a cross sectional survey (questionnaire) to gather information on general political behaviour (GB), get ahead (GA), pay and promotion policies (PP), time stress (TS) and anxiety (AX). Data analysis was conducted with the use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 and the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) version 25.0. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied in examining and testing the relationships between observed constructs and their causal latent constructs while Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesised relationships between constructs. The findings of the study revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between organisational politics and job stress. The findings also emphasised that organisational politics is considered as a hindrance-related stressor that hampers the proper functioning of individual employees. This study concludes that organisational politics are the social ills of every organisation, it is upon the management of the SMEs to apply good human resource management policies to curb the politics. Contrary, if the organisational politics are not managed well, it will result in impacting the job outcomes such as job stress.
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    The influence of procedural, distributive and interactional justice on organisational citizenship behaviour among employees at the SAPS academy, Paarl
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2016) Jansen Van Vuuren, Henk Riaan; Joubert, Dr. P. A.; Dhurup, Prof. M.
    Keywords: organisational justice, procedural justice, distributive justice, interactional justice, organisational citizenship behaviour. The purpose of this study is to investigate employees’ perceptions of organisational justice and their effects on organisational citizenship behaviour. This study advocates that the way employees perceive organisational justice affects their organisational citizenship behaviour in their current organisation. The fact that employees play a central role in the realisation of an organisation’s goals makes it critical for any organisation to have employees who are willing to go beyond what is required of them. In this study, a quantitative research paradigm and an exploratory research method were used to investigate a sample size of 226 employees working at the SAPS Academy, Paarl. In order to minimise the study bias, systematic sampling was used to ensure that the sample accurately reflected the larger population (N=457). Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and the results of the correlation analysis revealed that all three dimensions of organisational justice are significantly and positively related to organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational justice also showed a strong predictive relationship with organisational citizenship behaviour. Based on the findings of the empirical survey, it was revealed that if organisational justice practices are implemented appropriately, employees holding key positions may be likely to display more organisational citizenship behaviours. Therefore, it was recommended that, to address negative perceptions of organisational justice, a strategy should be formulated to ensure that employees are treated fairly in terms of the dimensions of organisational justice. It was also recommended that when developing and implementing such a strategy, barriers should be addressed that could:  influence the availability of accurate and complete information for decision making; and  influence the dissemination of information pertaining to job decisions. It is further recommended that rewards programmes be reviewed to ensure that employees will experience fairness when comparing their own payoffs with those of fellow employees and perceive just distributive justice practices. vii The study concludes by recommending that a “Code of good practice – communication policy” be developed that would enable the displaying of social sensitivity and dignified, respectful and acceptable behaviour by employees in a managerial position towards their subordinates. The findings and recommendations of this study are important to employers as they provide crucial information regarding the types of activities organisations could engage in for employees to consider them as acceptable organisational justice practices. Such involvement in acceptable organisational justice activities can improve employees’ organisational citizenship behaviour and reinforce effective and efficient service delivery in their current organisation. The implications for future research indicate that a comparative study testing the differences between different groups based on certain biographical traits, such as gender, marital status, age, educational level, income and length of service in the South African Police Service, is advisable as it would assist in determining how such biographical traits might influence the various dimensions of organisational justice. Furthermore, the study could also be expanded to include a broader national sample within the Division: Human Resource Development and other divisions within the South African Police Service.
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    Factors influencing adherence and employee perceptions towards safety control in a mining company
    (2018-01) Modiba, Thami Malcolm; Mokoena, B. A.; Dhurup, M
    The majority of mine health and safety authorities around the world agree that the quality of safety standards is of increasing importance to the mining industry across the world (Kleyn & du Plessis 2016:309). Mining companies in many countries such as New Zealand, (an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean), Australia, South Africa and China have taken up the challenges of guaranteeing liability and improving performance of the safety and health of their workers, aware that many workers are injured, if not fatally. These incidents result in production loss. This study provides not only an opportunity to evaluate the status of the safety control measures of the work system in a mining company, but also enables management to pinpoint the causes of poor safety performance and implement efforts that ensure safety improvement. The primary objectives of this study were to examine factors influencing the adherence and employee perceptions towards safety control measures in a mining company. Furthermore, the governments in many countries have tried to implement legislation to try to curb the scourge of industrial accidents. Safety disclosures of the annual reports from the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) of South African mining organisations, discloses 10 major mining accidents that happened in 2015 at Northern Cape mining companies. Six of these accidents occurring from a small mining sector and four from a large mining sector, except previous year’s safety records as detailed in this study. A quantitative approach was adopted for the study. The data were collected using a sample of 200 participants in which a survey questionnaire was administered to permanent mine employees and full time contractors in the mine. A simple sampling technique was used and data were then analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 25.0 to formulate frequency tables and descriptive analysis graphs. Furthermore, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test were utilised to analyse the data and examine significant differences between employee perceptions and attitudes towards safety control measures, age and length of service (Willemse 2009:118-121). The results reveal that although the mine was considered compliant, with its employees showing a positive attitude towards safety control measures, ANOVA revealed different perceptions of employees based on their age and years of experience. However, no differences were found in relation to gender and occupation. Based on the findings, this study further recommends future studies to be conducted in order to explore the effectiveness of implementing an internal system of self-evaluation as a starting point in any safety improvement process. An effective system of internal self-evaluation will trademark the mining sector internationally and improve workers’ safety by improving effectiveness and assurance of the control measures and the level of control performance criteria. The system should create the awareness of adherence to safety control measures and deal with employee perception towards safety adherence in mining. In addition it should be a system that ensures a structured and standardised approach to learning from incidents and that all necessary steps are followed to safeguard against repeats of incidents and accidents through an effective incident investigation process (Van den Berg 2014:11). The findings of the study revealed that the leadership in the mine has a strong, positive and significant influence on the performance of safety. In this regard, this study recommends that an effective employee engagement system to be developed and that mine managers establish a safety control charter that must be understood by the mine workers, develop a code of ethics that requires ethical and honest behaviour from all employees in order to improve safety performance and learn from these accomplishments. Mine workers will take their cue from the attitude and example displayed by management, therefore, it is recommended that mine management develop an organisational culture, which assigns authority and responsibility to employees and organises and develops employees with direction provided by management that determines the type of culture in that mine. To minimise or reduce the risk of health exposure of each activity as highlighted under Regulation 9 of the Mine Health and Safety Act (29 of 1996), it is recommended that mine manager’s enforce the use of protective equipment. The leadership and human resources, mine workers and all persons who may be affected by the mining activities in the surrounding area of operation need to be aware of the factors that can impact their well-being. The study also presented managers, mine owner and other decision makers within the mining company with important insight on key areas of factors that may require particular attention in order to enhance their operational strategies towards zero harm in the mine.
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    The influence of procedural, distributive and interactional justice on job satisfaction among members of the South African Police Academy: Thabong.
    (2018-02) Gounden, Manisagaree; Joubert, P. A.; Dhurup, M.
    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of procedural, distributive and interactional justice on job satisfaction among members of the South African Police Academy, Thabong. A critical function of the South African Police Service (SAPS) is to ensure that the inhabitants of South Africa are safe. Members of the SAPS need to be committed and have a high morale to ensure that the vision of the SAPS is fulfilled. This study advocates the application of the equity theory. People prefer to work in an environment that is perceived as just. Employees will experience satisfaction with their job in terms of equity when the equity theory is applied. However, inequity will lead to tension at the workplace. In order for the officers as employees of the SAPS to function effectively, it is essential for the SAPS to ensure that their employees are satisfied. In this study, a quantitative approach was applied to gain an understanding of the influence of organisational justice (OJ) dimensions (PJ, DJ, IJ) on job satisfaction (JS). This involved administering questionnaires to 234 employees who were attending management courses at the SAPS Academy, Thabong in the northern Free State province of South Africa. Two primary tests were used to assess the suitability of the data for factor analysis. These tests are the Kaiser-Meyer Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s test of sphericity. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlations among the constructs. A means analysis was conducted to assess the perceptions of the employees in respect of PJ, DJ, IJ and JS. Multiple regression analysis was executed to examine whether the independent variables of PJ, DJ and IJ predict the dependent variable JS. The Cronbach alpha coefficient test provided an adequate indication of reliability of the instrument. Face/ content, construct and convergent validity methods were applied to establish validity of the study. A positive relationship between the OJ and JS was found in this study. The SAPS will be able to improve the JS levels of SAPS officers by making positive improvements when applying OJ to influence the various elements of JS identified in this study. This will effectively enable SAPS officers to meet the challenge of providing improved service. The proper implementation of OJ will ultimately lead to the organisations success as well as the progression of its employees. Since the SAPS depends on human resources, the organisation is required to assess the current OJ practices and create a working environment that stimulates and motivates employees so that their JS levels increase. The recommendations proposed for this study offer vital information on OJ practices that could assist the SAPS to improve the perceptions of employees. Accordingly, the application can improve employees’ low morale resulting from unfairness and injustice, thereby increasing the JS levels amongst employees. The findings of the research may generate guidelines for OJ practices. Recommendations include a systematic and transparent reward system that recognises employees’ excellent performance and rewards them accordingly. Another recommendation is the creation of a well-structured consultative forum to grant employees an opportunity to provide management with their perceptions of unfair practices. Future research should extend to other sectors within the public sector environment, as well as expanding the research to include several other JS elements.