ItemSupply chain strategy, flexibility and performance in the Gauteng fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry(Vaal University of Technology, 2023) Ngomane, Sikhulile Rhine; van der Westhuizen, J. P., Dr.; Mafini, C., Prof.The successful implementation of supply chain strategy has received significant attention among literature and practitioners, due to its importance in contributing to company success. The success of the FMCG industry in South Africa has also been attributed to the effectiveness of its supply chain strategies. However, the industry faces numerous challenges such as miscellaneous risks that include the potential loss of key suppliers, innovation, and risk, planning and forecasting, power outages in manufacturing plants and the fact that only a limited amount of safety stock can be held to offset uncertainty. It also faces difficulties in improving supply and demand, which further extends to transforming supplier relationships into effective collaboration. Thus, this study applies supply chain strategy to the FMCG industry in South Africa, and seeks to establish the connection between supply chain strategies, flexibility (SCF) and performance (SCP) in the sector. The methodological procedure in this study was guided by the positivist paradigm which is embedded in quantitative and causal designs. A sample of 228 respondents purposively drawn from the FMCG industry in Gauteng province participated in the survey. The collected data were tested using descriptive and inferential statistics. The specific statistical techniques applied included the analysis of frequency distributions, percentages, mean scores, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hypotheses tests using partial least squares-based structural equation modelling. The empirical results showed that two supply chain strategies, namely, organisational learning and supplier integration contribute significantly to SCF. In turn, SCF contributes positively to financial and non-financial performance. Supply chain strategies such as innovation, risk management and customer orientation were statistically insignificant in predicting SCP. The study is significant because it identifies that supply chain strategies are important in developing flexible FMCG supply chains in South Africa. It also confirms the importance of SCF in improving the performance of FMCG supply chains. The study may therefore be used as a reference source for information on the improvement of SCP in FMCG supply chains. ItemAn evaluation of the supplier relationship management and procurement practices at a parastatal: the case of Eskom Holdings Limited(Vaal University of Technology, 2014) Jonathan, Ellsworth C.; Mahlasela, E. R., Dr.; Pooe, David, Prof.The primary objective of this study was to investigate the supplier relationship management practices at Eskom. Currently, the challenges faced by the parastatal include diminished reserve margin, increased unplanned generation plant outages as well as coal supply and quality constraints coupled with ever-rising primary energy costs. It is, therefore, evident that as a national asset, Eskom cannot overcome the current challenges successfully without strong partnerships with key suppliers. A framework for supplier management containing four different elements was researched. The first element, which forms the basis for all supplier management operations, is the development of supplier management relationships. The framework also includes supplier collaborations and the various aspects of discovery, supplier pre-selection, and supplier selection, which relate to finding, qualifying, and choosing the best suppliers. Lastly, and also very important was the supplier development and localisation as well as the legislature thereof. A quantitative cross-company survey was conducted using a sample of 260 suppliers, who have been on the database for more than twelve (12) months and who responded to the business requests to update the data on the system. The findings of the study are largely supported by the literature. Finally, the study makes recommendations and highlights further research, managerial, and policy implications. ItemThe drivers of supply chain performance in the food retail industry in Gauteng province(Vaal University of Technology, 2018-01) Ngouapegne, Chriss Narick Mangoukou; Mafini, C., Prof.; Chinomona, E., Dr.The food retail industry is an important contributor to the economy. Buyers and suppliers in this industry work in collaboration with each other to achieve superior supply chain performance. To achieve this, they have to find ways and methods to improve it. The purpose of this study was to investigate the drivers of supply chain performance in the food retail industry in the Gauteng province. This study considers three of these drivers, namely buyer-supplier trust, buyer-supplier commitment and supply chain relationship longevity. A quantitative approach was adopted in which a survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 429 managers and staff members from food retailing firms in the Gauteng province. The study used a non-probability convenience sampling technique to select respondents. Data were analysed with the aid of two software packages, namely the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 24.0) and the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS version 24.0). A confirmatory factor analysis was applied in examining and testing the relationships between observed constructs and their causal latent constructs while structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesised relationships between constructs. The results of the research revealed that buyer-supplier trust, buyer-supplier commitment and supply chain relationship longevity positively and significantly influence supply chain performance. Buyer-supplier trust exerted a positive and significant influence on both buyersupplier commitment and relationship longevity. Also, the results showed that buyer-supplier commitment has a positive and significant influence on relationship longevity. The study concludes that to achieve greater supply chain performance, food retailers should expedite the levels of trust, commitment and length of relationships with their suppliers. The results of this study provide useful insights on how businesses in the food retail industry could benefit from trust, commitment and relationship longevity as well as on how to improve supply chain performance. The results of this study contribute to the existing body of knowledge by generating new information on buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, the study is useful to buyers and suppliers in the food retail industry who wish to enhance supply chain performance and develop better relationships. ItemThe influence of supply chain responsiveness, collaboration and information sharing on the performance of small to medium enterprises in a district municipality(Vaal University of Technology, 2020) Mba, Eucharia Akuoma; Chinomona, E., Dr.; Omoruyi, O., Dr.Supply chain management is becoming more complex for small- and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the need to improve performance seems to be significantly necessary. For SMEs to be efficient and effective towards minimising disruptions within supply chains, ensuring availability of resources and improving just-in-time delivery, information sharing coupled with supply chain collaboration and responsiveness are essential strategies for enhancing business performance. Therefore, this study regards supply chain collaboration, responsiveness and information sharing as major factors influencing not only SMEs performance. In this study, a quantitative research methodology was applied. Relational governance theory (RGT) provided structure to a clear understanding of information sharing among SMEs and customers. The theory highlighted that SMEs aiming to improve their performance, should adopt the style of collaborating with the right suppliers and continuously communicate with the members of the supply chains. This structure guided the researcher towards planning, implementing and evaluating the research findings. An overview of the research methodology and the techniques used in the study are presented, including the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 25.0 Windows) used to analyse and determine the reliability and validity of the research instrument. Results acquired show a strong relationship between the four constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) results support the empirical findings, suggesting that the model fit the study. The reliability and validity of the constructs (composite reliability) and the average variance extracted sought the empirical findings that correlate the need for SMEs to employ information sharing, supply chain responsiveness and supply chain collaboration as a determinant influence on SMEs performance. The Cronbach alpha values ranges from 0.823 to 0896 and AVE results ranges from 0.500 to 0.625 respectively which indicate acceptable reliability and validity for this study. It is recommended that as focused responsiveness is critical, all efforts made by SMEs must be expanded in order to determine what constitutes desired responsiveness for individual members in the supply chain. Differentiated and highly responsive programmes for key members of the supply chain should be impartial with supply chain members oriented but less tailored approaches for lesser involved members. Enough and important information must be obtained in order to identify the member’s requirements. ItemDrivers of procurement performance in the public health industry in the Gauteng province(Vaal University of Technology, 2022-01) Masemola, Shilela Catherine; Van der Westhuizen, J. P., Dr.; Omoruyi, O., Dr.The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between supplier selection practices, supplier risk management, supplier commitment and procurement performance in the public health industry in Gauteng province. Many studies have been conducted on the specific subject of procurement performance within the public health care sector. However, there is very little evidence that any such studies have been carried out that have precisely been narrowed down to the specific subject of the dimensional relationships and linkages between Supplier selection, supplier risk management, supplier commitment and procurement performance in the public health industry in South Africa. This study, therefore, was conducted to fill this gap. To measure the study constructs, the survey material was designed in the form of a structured questionnaire. Participants were asked to complete four test instruments namely: supplier selection questionnaire, supplier risk management questionnaire, supplier commitment and procurement performance questionnaire. A total number of 200 questionnaires was distributed to the identified sample of public health industries of which 187 responded and finally, 150 questionnaires were usable and used for data analysis. The collected quantitative data were analysed using the SMART-partial least squares (SMART-PLS 3) structural equation modelling procedure. The actual data analysis techniques applied included descriptive statistics and inferential statistics using structural equation modelling. Also, the latter used a SMART-PLS 3 to test the psychometric properties of measurement scales and the testing of the six hypotheses using the path analyses technique. The results of the study showed positive and significant relationships amongst all variables except for one. Specifically, supplier selection and supplier risk management exerted a moderate and significant influence on supplier commitment. Moreover, supplier commitment had a strong positive and significant relationship with procurement performance while supplier risk management had a weak and insignificant relationship with the same factor. More results provided from the analysis confirmed the existence of a very strong and significant relationship between supplier selection and procurement performance. Besides, the study takes note of its contributions to highlighting its merits. From a theoretical perspective, it provides an in-depth examination of some driving factors to supplier selection, supplier risk management, supplier commitment and procurement performance within Public health entities. Given that a study of this nature has not been performed before amongst South African public health care sectors, the results are an essential addition to the existing body of literature within the area of procurement performance within public health industries in developing countries such as South Africa. The study concludes by suggesting recommendations for limiting the impact of the identified challenges on procurement performance. ItemSupply chain coordination and firm performance in the construction industry in Gauteng Province(Vaal University of Technology, 2022) Montso, Mosidi Elizabeth; Mafini, C., Prof.; Chinomona, E., Prof.The construction industry is an important contributor to the economy of South Africa. In this industry, buyers and suppliers work in collaboration with each other to achieve superior supply chain performance. To achieve this, they have to find ways and methods to improve it. The purpose of this study was to investigate supply chain coordination and firm performance in the construction industry in the Gauteng Province. This study considers three drivers: supplier coordination, customer coordination and coordination effectiveness to achieve the performance of the construction industry. In most previous research studies, researchers have overlooked the important considerations and variables of supply chain coordination and firm performances as environmentally-friendly exercises in the construction industry. As a result, there was an abundant necessity to examine how the construction industry should implement a supply chain coordination programme and firm performance as environmentally-friendly practices in the organisational activities to ensure the sustainability of the construction industry. The effective application of SCC and firm performance in the construction industry will benefit all stakeholders. A quantitative approach was adopted in which a survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 414 construction supply chain managers and professional employees in the Gauteng Province. The study used a non-probability convenience sampling technique to select respondents. Data were analysed with the aid of two software packages: the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 27.0) and the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS version 27.0). A confirmatory factor analysis was applied in examining and testing the relationships between observed constructs and their causal latent constructs while structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesised relationships between constructs. The results revealed that supplier coordination, customer coordination and coordination effectiveness positively and significantly influence firm performance in the construction industry. Further, the study determines that to improve firm performance, the construction industry should advance the stages of trust, guarantee and sustainable relationships with their stakeholders. The results provide useful insights into how the construction industry could benefit from cultivating trust, assurance and sustainable relationships between supply chain partners as well as on how to improve firm performance. Therefore, this study is not only important for construction companies but also for manufacturers, suppliers and customers since most of them will collectively achieve the goal of performing purposeful activities to boost construction performance and sustainability. ItemLean practices and supply chain competitiveness in the steel industry in Gauteng, South Africa(Vaal University of Technology, 2022-07) Khoza, Sizwe; Okoumba, L., Dr.; Mafini, C., Prof.This study examines the influence of lean supply chain management (LSCM) on supply chain competitiveness in the steel industry in Gauteng, South Africa. The industry suffered a huge blow when imported steel took over the market and collapsed big players within the industry in South Africa.A range of problems hit the market hard, leaving companies applying for section 189 of the labour law to reduce overheads and restructure their organisations. It is evident that organisations need to change their way of thinking,heighten their supply chain strategies and adopt international standards like lean supply chain management practices to become competitive in a broader spectrum. Using a data set of 265 supply chain professionals drawn from the steel manufacturing industry in Gauteng, results showed the importance of proper implementation of LSCM woulddirectly influence SCC, leading to improved organisational performance. The collected quantitative data were analysed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 27.0) statistical software.Techniques such as correlations and regressions were used to test the hypotheses.The results of the study showed that four lean practices, namely Just in Time, Total Quality Management, Strategic Partnership and Waste Elimination all predictthe establishment of a lean culture. However, Human Resource Management was statistically insignificant. The results further showed that Lean culture predicts the competitiveness of the steel supply chain. Thererefore, an emphasis on lean supply chain management in the steel industry is anessential contributor to its success. ItemGreen supply chain practices and supply chain performance in the beverage industry of South Africa(Vaal University of Technology, 2020-04) Mahlatsi, Michael Kgaisi; Omoruyi, Osayuwamen, Dr.; Chinomona, Elizabeth, Dr.In South Africa, the beverage industry is perceived to be a major contributor to the economy. Internal and external stakeholders in this industry are engaged in environmental collaboration with each other to achieve better environmental and supply chain performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of green supply chain management practices on environmental performance and supply chain performance in the beverage industry of South Africa. It considers four of these practices, namely, internal environment management, investment recovery, eco-design and green purchasing. A quantitative approach was adopted, with the use of a survey questionnaire to collect information from 373 supply chain management professionals from beverage companies in South Africa. The study used a probability simple random sampling method. The data gathered was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 and Analysis of a Moment Structures (AMOS) version 25.0. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to validate the measurement scales while Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to test the relations between constructs. The results revealed that internal environment management, investment recovery, eco-design and green purchasing positively and significantly influence environmental performance. Moreover, the results also revealed that environmental performance exerted a strong, significant and positive influence on supply chain performance. Recommendations and implications for further research were made based on these results. The study presents supply chain management professionals, internal and external stakeholders within the beverage industry with useful insights on key factors that ought to be addressed in order to improve their organisational strategies. Therefore, the study is essential to internal and external stakeholders in the beverage industry who wish to improve environmental and supply chain performance. ItemReverse logistics activities in manufacturing firms in the Vaal Triangle area(Vaal University of Technology, 2020-01) Seeku, T. V.; Mafini, C., Prof.The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of reverse logistics practices on environmental sustainability and business performance in manufacturing firms in the Vaal Triangle Region. The study employed a quantitative research method that used a survey questionnaire to gather data from supply chain professionals operating in the manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The survey was self-administered to 350 randomly selected respondents who were mainly supply chain professionals drawn from various manufacturing firms in the Vaal Triangle region. Despite the large number of respondents, only 201 questionnaires were usable, which represented a response rate of 57 per cent. Data obtained were analysed using SPSS 25.0 in which descriptive statistics were analysed to assess the demographic characteristics of the respondents. An analysis of mean scores was performed to establish the perceptions of supply chain professionals toward the levels of the constructs in manufacturing firms. Besides, the study made use of correlation and regression analyses to examine the causal relationships between reverse logistics practices on environmental sustainability and business performance. The results of the study show that the identified reserve logistics practices (repairs, remanufacturing, recycle, recondition and disposal) were insignificantly correlated to environmental sustainability. However, environmental sustainability was significantly correlated to the two sub-dimensions of business performance, namely, sales and profit. Likewise, in the regression analysis, all reverse logistics components were statistically insignificant, whereas environmental sustainability significantly influenced both profits and sales. The study thus offered a contrasting perspective from the general findings that have found reverse logistics to be a significant contributor to sustainability initiatives. However, the study confirms the importance of environmental sustainability as a predictor of business performance in manufacturing firms. ItemThe influence of production planning on business performance as a risk management technique in the manufacturing industry(Vaal University of Technology, 2021) Mogano, M. M. K.; Omoruyi, O., Dr.; Mafini, C., Prof.; Chinomona, E., Dr.Production planning in the manufacturing industry has previously been viewed as a less strategic function for achieving businesses’ bottom-line goals. Many companies in the manufacturing industry focus more on strategic sourcing and cost saving initiatives for financial profits and often neglect the operational planning initiatives. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of production planning on business performance as a risk management technique. A quantitative approach was adopted for the study and a questionnaire was distributed physically and electronically to production managers, operation managers, supply chain managers and general managers; 306 respondents participated. The data obtained were analysed by means of the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SSPS). Model fit and hypotheses between the relationships identified in the study were tested through the Smart PLS 3 software. Business performance was evaluated through four indicators, namely production planning, production scheduling, lead time delivery and first to market. The results of the study show that production planning has a positive impact on the production scheduling function for lean production cost saving initiatives. The study also found that production planning positively influences lead time delivery and first to market because it manages the flow of material, production and delivery to the end user. Production scheduling and first to market proved to have very significant and positive relationships with business performance. These constructs have proved to deliver a competitive advantage and also improved customer satisfaction. The findings of this study present general key strategies to improve operational efficiencies and this study can contribute to increasing the literature in lean manufacturing and production excellence. ItemBuyer-supplier commitment and competitive performance among small and medium enterprises in Southern Gauteng(Vaal University of Technology, 2020) Nwele, Uju Kingsley; Chinomona, E., Dr.; Omoruyi, O., Dr.Economic growth, job creation and improved standard of living have resulted to focus mostly on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) across the world. Hence, establishing and maintaining relationships with partners across the supply chain has become a prerequisite for achieving long-term competitive benefits in the present business competitive environment. For this reason, buyer-supplier commitment is deemed an important long-term business relationship strategy towards achieving competitive performance. Although buyer-supplier commitments can serve as the basis for the development of relational standards, unbalanced commitments, on the other hand, may become a harbinger of opportunistic behaviours. This development is inimical to continued business relationship and its consequential benefits for the SMEs’ supply chain collaborators. Guided by the theoretical lens of the social exchange theory (SET), this study examines the influence of communication, product quality, flexibility, and buyer-supplier commitments on SMEs competitive performance in southern Gauteng. Using a convenience sampling technique, the study quantitatively analysed the 396 returned questionnaires. Data analysis was conducted using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 and AMOS 25.0 for the confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation modelling (SEM) respectively. The SEM analysis helped to confirm the suitability of the model fit as well as the positive and significant relationships of the proposed hypotheses. The analysis revealed that communication, product quality and flexibility are important variables in predicting buyer-supplier commitment as they displayed positive association with buyer-supplier commitment and the latter is significant in a firm’s effort towards achieving competitive performance. The study recommends the anchoring of SMEs strategies on commitment inorder for partners to efficiently and effectively enjoy competitive benefits. This research contributes new knowledge to the body of literature by developing a research framework on SME’s business growth and competitive performance and offered recommendations based on the study, which if implemented, could improve the economy. The study also revealed a higher relationship among the baseline constructs (communication, product quality and flexibility) which have received little or no conceptualisation in literature. ItemExploring the factors determining ethical supply chain management in the fast-moving consumer goods industry(Vaal University of Technology, 2020-11) Chivhungwa, Tafadzwa; Chinomona, E., Dr.; Mafini, C., Prof.The application of business ethics in Supply Chain Management (SCM) activities in the business environment has attracted much-needed attention from research academics and practitioners alike in recent years. SCM activities within organisational processes are subject to various ethical principles when facilitating contractual procedures between supply chain partners. In a broader context, ethical SCM has mostly been applied to the public industry. Less attention has been directed, however, towards private businesses that seek to employ ethical compliance towards SCM processes. In view of the growing importance of ethical conduct in the private industry, the purpose of this study is to explore the factors that determine ethical SCM in the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Industry (FMCG) in Gauteng Province. In this study, a quantitative research approach was employed to examine and test the factors that have an influence on ethical SCM in the FMCG industry within South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect and test the empirical data collected from 221 purposively selected professional employees and managers in the FMCG industry in Gauteng Province. The collected data were analysed through the use of the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPPS version 26.0) software and analysed using a combination of descriptive and inferential statistics. Specifically, the techniques used to analyse data include frequencies, percentages, mean scores, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), t-tests, ANOVA, Pearson correlations and regression analysis. Using the EFA technique, six legal components of ethical SCM were identified. These are moral standards, transparency, professional competence, corporate governance, accountability and fairness. Three components, namely supplier assessment and monitoring, relationship commitment and supplier collaboration, were extracted in the EFA procedure. A further three personal ethics components were extracted, namely intrinsic values, honesty and integrity and skills. Descriptive statistics reveal that most managers and professional employees within the FMCG industry believe that they follow the legal aspects of SCM ethics. They also indicated that their firms are effective in managing their suppliers. The managers and professional employees in the FMCG industry also perceived that they espouse a high standard of personal ethics in their SCM activities. The results of the t-tests revealed that female respondents are more likely to adhere to personal ethics than their male counterparts. Results of the ANOVA tests revealed significant statistical differences on the race and occupational area categories of the FMCG employees that participated in this study. Under the race category, Whites and those of the Mixed race have different attitudes towards supplier collaboration when compared to other racial groups. Managers and professional employees from the procurement department have different attitudes on legal aspects when compared to those in other departments such as transport, warehouse, contract management and customer services employees. Pearson correlations revealed that connections between the constructs were either weak or moderate. Regression analysis revealed that among all legal components and personal ethics factors, only fairness significantly and positively predicted supplier management. The study recommends that the FMCG industry should recruit and develop managers and professional employees with a recruitment process that is more structural and process-driven as this promotes a unique brand of leaders that dictate sound and effective leadership processes. To maintain effectiveness amongst managers and professional employees, training remains a catalyst in increasing knowledge, skills and overall competency within the FMCG industry. ItemAssessing the influence of internal environmental management systems on green packaging management, green information systems and organisational performance(Vaal University of Technology, 2021-07-26) Mahlangu, D. M.; Chinomona, E., Dr.; Hove-Sibanda, P., Prof.The effective practice of green supply chain has been a focus of both practitioners and researchers for almost a decade, mostly focusing on greenhouse effects and implementing full green supply chain control systems. However, not much attention has been given to empirical relationships between internal environmental management systems, green packaging management, green information systems adoption and organisational performance. The chief objective of this study was to assess the internal environmental management factors of the plastic packaging manufacturing organisations in Gauteng province in South Africa, mainly focusing on the three major internal environmental factors, namely pollution prevention plans, total quality management and environmental audits. Secondly, the study aimed to determine the relationship between green packaging management, green information systems and organisational performance. A positivist approach was used as this study is quantitative. A total number of 250 questionnaires were distributed to managers and employees of the chosen plastic packaging organisations. Although 250 questionnaires were distributed to the chosen organisations, only 230 were deemed to be fit for capturing due to some errors on the other 20 questionnaires. For data analysis the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 24) was used to generate frequency tables and graphs. Furthermore, structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to generate regression weights and standard regression weights. The factor loading was also generated using SEM as well as model fitness and path co-efficiency values. A detailed research approach was followed using a sample size of 230; the results of this study show that there is a positive significant relationship between internal environmental management systems, green packaging management and green information systems. Further, it was found that most organisations that adopt green management systems are more likely to perform better than those that do not. The study also discovered that the government policies that place emphasis on green practices, not only pressurise organisations, but also help them to be strategic. Most plastic packaging manufacturing organisations usually find it difficult to operate without polluting the environment, but this study discovered that if they control their internal environmental systems, it will be easy for these organisations to adopt environmental management systems and produce green products. Also, given the changing market environments, currently most consumers prefer green products and if organisations go green this might open up new markets for their new products and enhance performance. This study examined the importance of green packaging management from the perspective of both government policies and organisational policies. The results showed that some organisations are still struggling to align their internal environmental management process with the external environment; however, the market changes are enforcing that most plastic packaging organisations start aligning their internal management systems with external systems, as it gives them opportunities towards new products and new competitive strategies that will lead to better performance. An environmental management framework was developed in this study. The framework aims to help guide plastic manufacturers with their long- and short-term strategies. In line with non-linear relationships between variables, the study recommends the following to the plastic packaging organisations: to create pollution prevention policies and strategies to improve organisational performance by eliminating pollution and avoiding penalties from the government. Pollution prevention plans, total quality management and environmental audits were used as independent variables to measure organisational performance. In line with the linear relationship between the adoption of green packaging management and organisational performance, it is recommended to the plastic packaging organisations that enterprises facing slow-moving sales growth, profitability and general performance challenges, should use green technologies as a remedy for their problems. ItemSupply chain integration, resilience and performance in the South African Rail Industry(Vaal University of Technology, 2021-03) Maila, Z. B.; Van der Westhuizen, J. P., Dr; Mafini, Prof. C.The rail industry in South Africa performs an important role in the transportation of goods and people. It also contributes in various ways to the socio-economic success of the country’s economy. However, the industry faces various performance-related challenges in areas such as maintenance of rail lines, poor train availability and non-operation of long-distance rail service, decline in fleet availability and accidents, most of which are linked to ineffective supply chain management. To resolve these challenges, this study proposes the implementation of supply chain integration as a method to improve the resilience and performance of the rail supply chain in South Africa. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate the connection between supply chain integration, resilience, and performance in the rail industry. To achieve the objectives of the study, a quantitative approach based on the positivist paradigm and deductive reasoning was followed. The sample consisted of 300 purposively selected supply chain management professionals including other departments working with supply chain, for example the industrial department and engineering department drawn from the rail industry in Gauteng Province. The collected data was analysed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results of the study indicated significant positive relationships for the three components of supply chain integration, namely internal integration (β=0.132), supplier integration (β=0.369), customer integration (β=0.596) and supply chain resilience. Among these three independent constructs, customer integration emerged as the most significant predictor of supply chain resilience. Significant and strong positive relationships were also observed between supply chain resilience and the tangible (β=0.781) and intangible (β=0.673) dimensions of supply chain performance. Among other things, the study recommends the training of professionals on the importance of supply chain integration, improvement of communications within the rail industry, adoption of relevant technologies and the nurturing of organisational cultures that promote both intra and inter-organisational collaboration. The study is significant in that it contributes new knowledge to the exiting literature in the South African rail industry. It also directs supply chain management research to the rail industry, which is an important economic sector and where there are many emerging issues that require empirical attention. Practically, the study shows that if rail industries improve supply chain integration there will be benefits to the firm in the form of enhanced resilience and performance of the supply chain. ItemA model for supply chain risk management and operational performance in the food retail industry in Zimbabwe(Vaal University of Technology, 2019-12) Mutekwe, Le-Roy Tanyaradzwa; Chinomona, E., Dr.; Mafini, C., Prof.The importance of the food retail industry and its role in stimulating economic growth and ensuring food availability as the final actor in the food supply chain in many countries is well documented in literature. This stands true in the case of Zimbabwe, where the industry has grown tremendously to become a significant contributor to the gross domestic product through employment creation, tax contributions and infrastructural development. Despite these contributions, the industry faces challenges in the form of supply chain risks. This is primarily due to the nature of the retail supply chain in Zimbabwe where over two-thirds of the products sold are imported. This forms the basis of this study which seeks to understand how supply chain risk management in food retail firms impacts on firm operational performance. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationships between supply chain risk management and operational performance in the food retail industry in Harare, Zimbabwe. To achieve the study’s aim, several variables were considered; namely, supply chain risk management, supply chain risk information sharing, and supply chain risk analysis and assessment, supply chain risk-sharing mechanisms and operational performance. The study followed a quantitative research approach based on a positivist paradigm. A total of 264 food retail firm owners, managers and professional employees who possess knowledge on supply chain risk management in Harare were selected using a non-probability, purposive sampling technique. Data were then collected using a close-ended survey questionnaire which was developed using adapted measurement scales. The collected data were analysed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 25.0) and the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS version 25.0) statistical software. The applied data analysis techniques included descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Inferential statistics used two approaches, namely, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The EFA tested for the factor structure of the collected data, whereas SEM tested for both psychometric properties of measurement scales and the relationships in the proposed hypotheses. The results of the study showed that supply chain risk management has a direct and significant relationship with both supply chain risk information sharing and supply chain risk analysis and assessment. Supply chain risk analysis and assessment yielded a positive and significant relationship with supply chain risk-sharing mechanisms. The relationship between supply chain risk analysis and assessment and supply chain risk-sharing mechanisms was significant but weak. Supply chain risk-sharing mechanisms had a strong and positive relationship with operational performance. There was, however, no significant direct relationship between supply chain risk management and operational performance. Insights gained from this study have merit from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Theoretically, the study provides an understanding of some driving factors to supply chain risk management, supply chain risk-sharing information sharing, supply chain risk analysis and assessment, supply chain risk-sharing mechanisms and operational performance within the food retail industry in Zimbabwe. Since there is limited evidence of similar previous studies in Zimbabwean food retail firms, the results are an essential addition to the existing body of literature within the area of supply chain management and supply chain risk management in the context of a developing country. From a management perspective, the study suggests specific recommendations that should be implemented for the optimisation of all five constructs. ItemAn exploration of procurement practices in the state-owned passenger rail agencies in Gauteng province.(Vaal University of Technology, 2018-12) Mkhabele, Caxwell; Chinomona, E., Dr.; Van der Westhuizen, J. P., Dr.Supply Chain Management (SCM) departments and, specifically, procurement functions, account for the largest expenditure in most organisations. However, their function has been misunderstood, undervalued, and under-capacitated, and their strategic importance not recognised. As a result, the majority of public agencies in South Africa are implementing their procurement practices poorly. The main research question of this study focused on procurement practices in the state-owned passenger rail agencies in the Gauteng province. A qualitative research method was adopted in which semi-structured interviews were employed to gather data regarding current procurement practices within the procurement function in the state-owned passenger rail agencies. Content analysis was utilised to analyse and interpret data collected from 12 procurement officials employed in the procurement functions within these state-owned passenger rail agencies in the Gauteng province. The findings of this study indicate that there are poor procurement practices within the state-owned passenger rail agencies in the Gauteng province regardless of government initiatives established to address lack of accountability, inconsistency in application of procurement policies, lack of supporting structures and fragmented processes. The detailed findings indicate that the procurement function is still regarded as an administrative function within the state-owned passenger rail agencies. Due to the procurement function still being regarded as an administrative rather than as a strategic function, the procurement function is still under-rated within the state-owned passenger rail agencies in the Gauteng province. The findings also establish that there is poor contract management during the procurement processes. Furthermore, the findings established that there is poor implementation of supplier management within multiple stages of the procurement processes in the state-owned passenger rail agencies in the Gauteng province. Due to poor procurement practices within the passenger rail agencies, eleven challenges were identified within the procurement functions. As a result of the above-mentioned challenges, this study recommends strategies that can be used to address the problems identified within the procurement functions of these state-owned passenger rail agencies in the Gauteng province. ItemA framework for the effective creation of business incubators in South Africa(Vaal University of Technology, 2019) Lose, Thobekani; Mafini, C., Prof.; Dhurup, M., Prof.The majority of business incubators in South Africa are supported by the Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA). However, a notable proportion of business incubators face a number of challenges to growth and development. Despite a number of studies conducted on business incubators generally, little information exists on the framework for the creation of business incubators. The concept of business incubation has gained prominence in academia in recent years as a vehicle for small business development. In view of the growing importance of business incubators, the objective of this study is to develop a framework for the creation of business incubators in South Africa. Business incubator managers, coaches, project specialists, and enterprise development practitioners were selected, being considered the ideal target population for this study. The study adopted a sequential mixed-methods methodology that commenced with a qualitative study and was followed by a quantitative study. For the qualitative study, data were collected from a purposively selected business incubator sample comprising nine participants. The principle of technical saturation was applied to ascertain the adequacy of the sample size. The trustworthiness and credibility of the qualitative study were achieved through pre-testing of the interview guide, bracketing, prolonged engagement with participants, peer debriefing, and researcher reflexivity. The analysis of the qualitative data was conducted using content and thematic analyses. The qualitative element of the study identified incubator prerequisites, situational analyses, operational processes/incubation strategies, and operational outputs as the main determinants of the framework for business incubators. In line with the methodology of the study, the determinants of the framework for business incubators that emerged from the qualitative study were further examined through a quantitative study. The data for the quantitative study were generated from a conveniently selected incubator practitioner sample of 121 respondents, using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Furthermore, the historical evidence method guided the determination of the sample size for the quantitative study. Prior to questionnaire administration of this study a pilot study was conducted to improve the accuracy of the survey instrument. The quantitative section utilised statistical data analysis procedures, descriptive statistics, reliability and validity analysis, correlation analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was utilised to analyse the quantitative data. The results of the quantitative data analysis revealed that the framework for incubation presents incubator prerequisites (incubation entry of incubatees) as the predictor construct. This construct has eight sub-components, which are situational analysis (incubatees’ characteristics), key requirements, operational process, factor components, intellective capabilities, administrative capabilities, market force engineering, and strategic resourcing (impact) with KPIs. The mediating construct is business incubator performance (incubation process—industry coaches, governance structure, and entrepreneurial focus), which in turn leads to monitoring and evaluation (incubation output—graduation phase, impact, and follow-ups). The relationships between these constructs were tested. In order to verify the reliability of the measurement items of the current study, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, the item-to-total values and composite reliability were computed. The validity of the survey instrument was enhanced through content, convergent, discriminant and predictive validities. In addition, the reliability and validity measures employed in the present study showed that the survey instrument utilised in the quantitative study was both reliable and valid. The study is significant in terms of its theoretical and business incubation policy implications. Theoretically, the study provides a comparative impression of the South African business incubation perspective and current trends in the ecosystem. Thus, future researchers, particularly in developing countries, may use the results of this study as a reference benchmark in terms of literature and research methodology. The various organs of the state, government agencies, as well as non-governmental organisations that are responsible for entrepreneurship development and the creation of additional business incubators, may use the study as a reference point in the generation of different initiatives aimed at improving the small business environment in South Africa. ItemSupply chain capabilities, agility and firm performance in a developing economy(Vaal University of Technology, 2019-09-09) Tlale, M. T.; Chinomona, E., Dr.; Van der Westhuizen, J. P., Dr.Nowadays, the business environment is characterised by faster technological development, customer satisfaction, shorter product life cycles, and more intense global competition. This new competitive landscape has forced firms to acquire new ways to achieve competitive advantage actively since a firm's competitive advantage is now dependent on operating efficiency and productivity across functional areas of the firm. The most successful manufacturers seem to be those that have carefully linked their internal processes to external suppliers and customers in unique supply chains. The manufacturing sector represents 15 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) of the South African commercial industry. Competitive challenges in the modern business environment have resulted in the need for firms to collaborate their business processes strategically across other business units within the supply chain. Supply chain network theory, dynamic capabilities theory, and the resource-based view theory are discussed to better understand the importance of firms' supply chain capabilities, supply chain agility, and firm performance. The primary objective of this research study was to investigate the association between supply chain capabilities (supply chain network design, supply chain information competency, and supply chain integration) and supply chain agility on firm performance in the manufacturing sector of the Gauteng province in South Africa. It also aimed to ascertain the kind of relationships between supply chain network with supply chain agility, supply chain network with firm performance, supply chain information competency with supply chain agility, supply chain integration with supply chain agility, supply chain integration with firm performance, and finally supply chain agility with firm performance. Structured questionnaires were distributed to various manufacturing firms in the Gauteng province. The data were collected from manufacturing firm managers and owners. SPSS 25.0 was used to analyse the data, and AMOS 25.0 used to perform the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and path analysis. The structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to assess the proposed model fit and to test the statistically significant relationship between the various hypotheses. The research study results revealed that supply chain technologies and supply chain vi agility positively influence firm manufacturing performance. This study contributes new knowledge to the existing literature by providing a research framework that can enhance manufacturing firms' performance and also offer practical recommendations based on the research findings for manufacturing firms and future research. Furthermore, as one of the first studies to address the association between supply chain capabilities and supply chain agility on firm performance in the Gauteng province, this study generates new insights and information, as well as outlines the strategic reasons for manufacturing firms' managers and owners to improve on their organisational relationships. Hence, the study found that firms have realised significant supply chain coordination through supply chain capabilities and supply chain agility and that firms have been able to attain strategic goals, reduce risks and improve internal and external coordination of operational processes. Keywords: supply chain network design; supply chain information competency; supply chain integration; supply chain agility; firm performance. ItemE-Procurement, supplier integration and supply chain performance in small and medium enterprises in Gauteng Province(Vaal University of Technology, 2018-10) Madzimure, Jeremiah; Mafini, Prof. C.; Dhurup, Prof. M.The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between e-procurement, supplier integration and supply chain performance in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Most studies on e-procurement, supplier integration and supply chain performance have focused on large companies. Current knowledge involving SMEs and e-procurement is still limited. This study, therefore, was conducted to fill this gap. With rapid changes in technology and globalisation of markets, firms, especially SMEs, need support to adapt to technology and make use of e-procurement functions to compete with larger firms. The paradigm used in this study was post-positivism. A quantitative research approach was adopted in this study. The target population for this study consists of all owners and managers who are currently employed in SMEs in the Gauteng Province, South Africa. To measure the study constructs, the survey material was designed in the form of a structured questionnaire. Participants were asked to complete three test instruments, namely, an e-procurement questionnaire, supplier integration questionnaire and supply chain performance questionnaire as well as their profile and SME profile. A total number of 350 questionnaires was distributed to the identified sample of SME owners and managers of which 294 responded and finally 283 questionnaires were usable and used for data analysis. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to establish scale accuracy. All measures conformed to acceptable model fit and composite reliability (CR) and revealed that the scales used in this study are reliable. The reliability results confirmed that all constructs reached the generally agreed upon minimum scale range for Cronbach’s alpha of 0.70. Finally, the structural model was tested; four out of seven hypotheses were supported. Validity in this study was achieved through face, content, convergent and discriminant validities. The principal finding of this study reveals that e-design has a positive and significant linear relationship with supplier integration. In addition, the results showed that e-sourcing has a positive and insignificant linear relationship with supplier integration. The insignificant relationship could be indicative of the fact that enterprises are not fully utilising the e-procurement systems in selecting their suppliers to effectively improve their collaboration with supply chain member firms. The findings further reveal that e-negotiation has a positive and significant linear relationship with supplier integration. The study’s empirical findings also indicate that e-evaluation has a negative and insignificant relationship with supplier integration. Further, e-informing was also found to have a negative relationship with supplier integration. The study additionally revealed that supplier integration has a positive and significant linear relationship with tangible supply chain performance. Lastly, the SEM findings show that supplier integration has a positive and significant relationship with the intangible supply chain performance. After reviewing the results, the conclusion was drawn that theoretically, this research has contributed to literature by providing additional information on supply chain management, e-procurement, supplier integration and supply chain performance. The results presented provide useful information about the relationship between e-procurement, supplier integration and supply chain performance in SMEs, with implications for supplier firms and other relevant stakeholders. These results contribute to the expanding body of knowledge on supply chain aspects. The current study added practical value by developing an integrative model which might be used by SME practitioners in South Africa. The study recommends that the collaborating firm owners and managers consider increasing the levels of supplier collaboration by having regular meetings, training workshops or courses and conferences to improve their supply chain performance. Furthermore, it is recommended that SME owners and managers must effectively implement e-design systems to increase the chance of integrating with their suppliers, thereby increasing the chance of improving performance as well as cutting supply chain costs. Areas for further research and limitations for this study have also been highlighted. ItemAn empirical exploration of supply chain constraints facing the construction industry in South Africa(Vaal University of Technology, 2016-05-28) Pillay, PoobalanThe South African Construction Industry is one of the largest contributors to the gross domestic product of the country as well as to employment. It has, however, been experiencing significant challenges due to multifaceted factors. The main objective of this research was to identify the supply chain management constraints within the South African Construction Industry and how these can be overcome. This study is by nature descriptive and exploratory and contains qualitative elements. The problems were identified through a literature review, focused group discussions and interviews with major construction companies in South Africa. The findings also indicate that the main supply chain management constraints are to a greater extent internal and typical of supply chain methodologies and approaches. These constraints are among others the lack of coordination, collaboration and commitment between suppliers and clients within the supply chain, poor leadership in key areas of systems, design problems (many changes and inconsistent information), deficient internal and external communication and information transfer, inadequate management within the supply chain, mainly poor planning and control just to mention a few. A model based on supply chain system management as well as the Theory Of Constraints (TOC) has been developed that can be a useful tool to address the constraints in the construction sector. Originating from the study are applicable recommendations for the South African construction industry supply chains, covering key themes that have been articulated in the study, particularly benchmarking to the theory of constrains. Such recommendations include further research core components of supply chain such as, collaborations, logistics and how each of system components can be linked to performance of the supply chain management system.