Theses and Dissertations (Hospitality, Tourism and Public Relations)

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    Determining South African National Parks' contribution to sustainable development goals in host communities: A case study of Kruger National Park
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2023-03) Mabibibi, Mashudu Andra; Thwala, K. C., Dr.; Dube, K., Prof.
    The study examines and evaluates the Kruger National Park’s role in assisting its host communities to meet their Sustainable Development Goals agenda. The study is triggered by the fact that the tourism industry is criticised for its unsustainable practices and exploitative proclivities. The existence of knowledge gaps on how the KNP operations and activities fullfil and lead to the realisation of SDGs, therefore, warrants research so as to generate information and strategies that are beneficial not only to the KNP only, but also to the communities that are located in its proximity. The study conducted between March and October 2021, used a case study reseach design in a mixed method approach to answer the research questions. The emperical work comprised of in-depth interviews (=30) with key informants identified by KNP gatekeppers; surveys (=70) with community members; a secondary literatire review; and observations of community projects done by host communities - artefacts sold within and outside the park, infrastructure developments in communities and agricultural practices in host communities. Thematic analysis was used to catergorise the data according to the corresponding SDG categories. The study found that despite hurdles such as climate change, diminished funding, and COVID-19, among other such factors, the Kruger National Park aided communities in meeting at least 15 of the 17 SDGs goals. The various projects of the KNP address all the SDGs except for SDG7 on affordable and clean energy and SDG 14 on life below water where no identified project could be directly linked to those SDGs. It was also found that some of the KNP’s flagship projects were ensuring economic emancipation, delivering quality education, and alleviating poverty and inequality, all of which interlink with conservation and environmental protection. The projects have also fostered some sense of ownership by local communities, a move which has helped improve relations between the park and host communities. The study recommends continuous monitoring of the role that protected areas can play in addressing the 17 SDGs. Continuous monitoring will allow for necessary interventions to be made at the policy and practical levels.
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    Evaluating the socio-economic factors impacting on the dietary diversity of elderly people in Sharpeville
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-12) Mwadiwa, Rufaro Janet; Egal, A. A., Prof.; Kearney, J. E., Prof.
    Rationale and objectives: Underlying and motivating the study was the need to evaluate the socio-economic factors impacting on the dietary diversity of the elderly people attending the Sharpeville Day Care Centre for the Aged (SDCCA). The assessment was based on the initial baseline surveys of 2004 and 2009 and all the converging results of the mutually related research data conducted at the centre to 2016. Methodology: A quantitative longitudinal population-based design was used for this study. In total, the sample size was n=302 respondents with 99 screened for 2004, 99 screened for 2009 and 104 respondents for this study. A variety of socio-economic variables (old age pension grant, household income, household contributions and education attainment) were used to measure the objectives. Different types of questionnaires were used as measuring instruments for all the variables of the study. These included socio- demographic questionnaires, administered to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the elderly and the 24-hour recall questionnaire, to identify actual food intake measured against the estimated average requirements (EARs) and food frequency questionnaires to determine the respondent’s food variety score over a period of one week. The completed questionnaires were captured on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet by the researcher. The analysis and correlation of the data were done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 25.0, with the assistance of a statistician. Results: From the baseline interventions, the dietary intake results revealed a poor dietary intake; thus, contributing to inadequate estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intakes (AIs) of nutrients. In this study, a carbohydrate-based diet was mainly consumed with insignificant intake of dairy and legumes despite a medium dietary diversity score. The energy intake for both the women (4 920.77kJ), which was equivalent to 48.75 percent of the EARs and males (4 945.61kJ), equivalent to 38.39 percent of the EARs, did not meet the recommended EER energy intake, with no significant variance amongst women and men (p=0.923). Both the FFQ and 24-hour recall indicated that carbohydrate and starch form the basis of most meals consumed. repeat. Longitudinally, the socio-economic variables had a statistically exchangeable impact on the dietary diversity scores, indicating either no relationship (0), negative (r=-1) or positive (r=1) associations between the food groups. Hypothetically, the hypothesis supported the results, showing that food consumption and dietary diversity had positive and negative significance these are two hypotheses (one positive and the other negative) to socio-economic variables within the elderly community is it not the other way around. Socio-economic variable having impact on food consumption and dietary diversity? Conclusion: All the respondents that took part in the study were unemployed pensioners and were the only contributors in the households, thus, clarifying the low total earnings in the elderly households. Furthermore, the majority of the respondents cared for more than one family member in the household. As a result, less money was available to spend on food diversity to maintain a healthy lifestyle. The low levels of education attainment contributed to poor nutrition knowledge. Hence, in order to promote longevity and healthy ageing, there is need for an integrated (traditional- modern food processes) nutritional education by public health services on food-based dietary diversity rather than only nutrient-based dietary. These results support the hypotheses that the elderly of SDCCA are constrained to making better food choices due to low incomes, low pension pay-outs, low educational levels and low household contributions.
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    An examination of climate change impacts on coastal tourism in Durban, South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-10) Mgadle, Aphelele; Lekaota, L., Prof.; Dube, K., Prof.
    Coastal communities are facing several environmental and developmental challenges. As the Decade of Sustainable Development Goals Action aimed at ensuring delivery of the aspirations set out in Agenda 2030 draws closer, a parallel initiative has been made on oceans. In 2018 the United Nations launched the Decade of Ocean Science (2021-2030), aimed at exploring the challenges faced by oceans and coastal communities. Given Operations Phakisa's well-documented socio-economic significance of oceans in South Africa, it is crucial to understand how climate change affects the country’s coastal tourism to inform policy and practice going forward. This study examined climate change impacts on coastal tourism in Durban. It used archival data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, primary data collected from key informant interviews (n=10), and an online questionnaire (n=302). Data analysis was done using XLSTAT 2021, Mann-Kendall Trend Analysis, Question-Pro Analytics and content and thematic analysis. The study found that extreme weather events such as rising sea levels, increases in tidal activity, coastal flooding and heat waves are identifiable threats to Durban’s future as a tourist destination. The study also found that sea level rise, sea surges, coastal storms, and high tides are worsening the challenge of beach erosion and coastal flooding, threatening tourism infrastructure in the process. In response, the eThekwini Municipality has embarked on response initiatives which include beach nourishment programmes, dune restoration and coastal defence mechanisms to conserve the beachfront and hopefully ensure coastal tourism sustainability. To assist such efforts, this study recommends educational support by civil society and government to sensitise and improve climate change understanding from a tourism perspective to ensure the sector’s adaptation and resilience. It also recommends public-private partnerships for the protection of coastal tourism infrastructure. Lastly, given the apparent threat of sea-level rise along Africa and South Africa’s coastlines, the study advocates a de-risked approach to constructing tourism properties.
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    Footwear cues influencing perceived quality and consumer satisfaction amongst Generation Y consumers at River Square Mall, Vereeniging
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2017-04) Mbambonduna, Thobeka; Van Wyk, A.; Chinomona, R., Prof.
    The focus of this dissertation is to examine the relationship between footwear cues, perceived quality and consumer satisfaction amongst Generation Y at River Square mall in Vereeniging. This research considers the effects of these cues as important arrays of quality indicators that consumers utilise in their evaluation process when selecting products. This knowledge is important to managers in the footwear industry. The lack of these considerations may lead to the manufacturing of fashion footwear that may not meet the consumers expectation regarding quality of the product and hence their satisfaction or possibly dissatisfaction. Footwear is alleged to be indispensable for the development of fashion apparel. Thus, the study sought to investigate underlying variables that influence footwear for the purpose of identifying ways in which the fashion industry can improve performance and presentation of footwear. A conceptual model was developed, drawing from cue utilization theory (CU) and utility theory (UT). Generation Y consumers at River Square mall in Vereeniging formed the sample of the study. A survey was conducted and research data was collected from 550 consumers. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data via Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22 and Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) 22. The findings indicate that footwear cues have a strong influence on perceived quality and perceived quality has a strong influence on satisfaction amongst Generation Y consumers. This indicates that Generation Y consumers perceive quality of footwear through extrinsic and intrinsic cues hence their satisfaction. Consequently fashion footwear business should regard effective cues when trading footwear.
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    Determining tourism climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies at a selected private game reserve in South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-01-14) Sibitane, Zinzi Eugene; Lekaota, L., Prof.; Dube, K., Prof.
    Background Climate change is a significant threat that affects the natural environment and the industries dependent on it for their livelihoods, such as coastal and nature-based tourism. Regardless of this knowledge, vast knowledge gaps still exist regarding how climate variability and change affect nature tourism operations and response strategies. Aim This study aims to determine tourism climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies at one of the leading private game reserves in South Africa, Phinda Private Game Reserve. Methodology The study adopted the pragmatism philosophy, which informed the use of the mixed methods research design. Data collection was conducted at Phinda Private Game Reserve in May 2021. The data was collected through field observations, in-depth interviews with Phinda Private Game Reserve staff, archival and secondary data analysis. Primary data were analysed using qualitative data techniques, which followed an interactive content and thematic analysis process. Secondary data was analysed using content analysis, whereas trend analysis was applied to archival data (climate data). Using Mann Kendall Trend Analysis, trend analysis was analysed to track climatic trends such as climate variability and change and test their significance. Results and discussion The study identified several vital climatic challenges attributed to climate variability and change, increasing temperature, and extreme rainfall, resulting in localised flooding and droughts. These climatic threats have resulted in challenges for tourism operations ranging from disturbed sleep for tourism employees, dying off birds due to extreme heat, destruction of infrastructure, loss of biodiversity, water shortages and other such challenges over the last couple of years. The lodge has responded by adopting climate change mitigation adaption strategies to address carbon risk and extreme weather events. Measures adopted by the reserve include adopting measures aimed at reducing the company’s carbon footprint and protecting tourism infrastructure from the damaging impacts of extreme weather events. Recommendations The study recommends adopting additional measures to deal with its carbon footprint, such as investing in renewable energy as part of its mitigation strategy and continuing its research in biodiversity conservation, which can offer a solution to species protection in the context of climate change. The study also recommends continued research and monitoring of climate change impacts and tourism response, given the continued shift in the climate in the region.
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    Investigating impacts of climate change and responses of botanical gardens in Gauteng province
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-08-02) Mosia, Malehloa; Labuschagne, V., Dr.; Dube, K., Prof.
    Worldwide, botanical gardens are used as critical recreational centres for urban tourism, where people can relax and learn about flora. Botanical gardens have a crucial role to play in conservation and tourism and have an essential role in conserving and maintaining plants and animal species. However, there is growing concern that botanical gardens and other protected areas could be at risk from climate variability and change. Regardless of this concern, very little on how climate variability and change will affect botanical gardens worldwide is known. This study sought to respond to this knowledge gap identified and aimed to examine the evidence, impact, and response to climate variability and change by the Pretoria National botanical gardens and Walter Sisulu botanical gardens in Gauteng province. The study adopted a pragmatism paradigm, with a case study that used a mixed-method approach. The study used multiple research techniques to collect data, such as; an online survey (324), key informants interviews (15), field observations and secondary data analysis. Data was analysed using a Mann-Kendall Trend Analysis, Microsoft excel sheet and Question-Pro analysis tools. Content and thematic analysis were used to analyse secondary and interview data. The study found evidence of climate variability and change at the two botanical gardens, characterised by intense rainfall activity such as flooding, extreme droughts, generally decline in rainfall amounts, and increasing temperature, posing a threat to infrastructure, flora, and fauna of the garden. Recreation makers complained that climate change adversely affects botanical gardens' aesthetics and general experience. In response to climate variability and change, botanical gardens in Gauteng are trying to adapt and mitigate the effects of climate change to foster climate resilience. As much as there are fears of climate variability and change impacts, botanical gardens are underprepared to deal with climate change, given the vast knowledge gaps that exist. This study recommends that scientific studies be conducted to ascertain how climate variability affects flora and fauna in the botanical gardens as there are many grey areas. Hopefully, this will prompt the gardens to adapt to climate variability and change effects appropriately.
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    Evaluating the value of corporate social investment as an image enhancer at a public broadcasting company
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021-08) Matsaung, David; Kunene, S. I.; Maleho, L. M., Dr.
    The concept of Corporate Social Investment (CSI) can be traced back more than 60 years. Although, it is not always fully understood or practiced in the clear manner that would benefit organisations, it does provide clear and consistent communication relating to CSI programmes that contribute towards alignment and consistency in ensuring community empowerment (Pillai 2017:178).The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the value of CSI programmes within a public broadcasting company and to further investigate how these programmes enhance the corporate image of the public broadcasting company (PBC) in Gauteng province. The study followed a quantitative design with a descriptive research approach. A self-administered questionnaire with a sample of n=500 was distributed. Twenty-eight respondents did not fully complete the questionnaire, therefore a total of 472 respondents was captured on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Descriptive statistics methods were used to analyse the data using SPSS IBM version 27 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The results showed that educational, entrepreneurial, social and skills development programmes are a major focus area of the SABC CSI programmes. It has become very clear that most respondents acknowledge and identify them as a priority area. Interestingly, education is regarded as one of the most outstanding programmes, and although it differs significantly in range from community development, learner support, bursary provision to capacity building it remains the pillar of the CSI programmes. The results further revealed that the CSI prorammes do enhance the corporate image of the broadcasting company. It is important to evaluate CSI programmes regularly in order to assess their value and contribution to the image of the organisation. The aim of Corporate Social Investment programmes is to empower the community and better their lives, therefore if they are not well executed, it could have a detrimental impact on an organisation’s image.
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    Stakeholder perceptions on visitors' centre as a strategic tool for engagement: lessons from a power station visitors' centre in the Vaal region
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021-08) Ntsabiseng, Teboho; Kunene, S. I.; Maleho, L. M., Dr.
    Relationships are important for building good reputation for the organisation. The purpose of the study was to explore stakeholders’ perceptions on visitors’ centre as a strategic tool for engagement. The study followed a qualitative approach and data was collected using semi-structured interviews and a sample of fifteen (15) participants was randomly selected. The results showed that the visitors’ centre is perceived by stakeholders as being an important establishment, and that face-to-face interaction or engagement with employees is important. It therefore appears that the centre serves as a hub of information; where individuals learn about a very large entity where information is collected and packaged in a comprehensive manner that creates mutual understanding between stakeholders and the organisation. However; the findings also revealed that, for the visitors’ centres to be successful in implementing their strategies of becoming a one-stop shop for stakeholders and delivering user-friendly messages about the organisation; the entity need to consider the ever-changing technological advancements such as using 3D and interactive models that will excite the public.
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    Food handlers' knowledge of food waste and waste and waste prevention practices in supermarket kitchens in Soweto, South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-09) Xaba, Philisiwe Happy; Kearney, J., Prof.; Marumo-Ngwenya, K., Dr.
    Background: Food waste in the foodservice units, which include supermarket kitchens, occur due to factors related to the menu such as the lack of careful menu planning, improper procurement of the menu items, lack of menu execution and improper practices during the distribution of meals. Also, improper refrigeration and storage facilities at optimal temperatures to maintain product’s shelf life contribute to food waste in foodservice units. Food waste management is a significant challenge globally and locally. Purpose of the study: To determine the knowledge on food waste and waste prevention practices of food handlers in supermarket kitchens in Soweto. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive research design was chosen to determine the knowledge and food waste prevention practices of food handlers. The population was 11 branches of supermarkets represented by one of the five largest franchise stores in South Africa with approximately 20 to 35 food handlers employed by each supermarket (± 220 total) as indicated by management. Only three supermarkets gave permission for the study. From the population, the survey system calculator was used to calculate the sample size (n=107). Purposive sampling was used to select the supermarkets and participants were conveniently sampled. A questionnaire based on reviewed literature was developed by the researcher to determine food handlers’ knowledge on food waste. An existing observation checklist was also amended for this study. Before the observations began, the researcher was alert about the reactivity problems. Data were collected during different times of the month, and the observations were conducted at different times of the day in each supermarket to measure the behaviour that was demonstrated by food handlers in the morning and in the afternoon. Collective instances of food waste practices were observed. For this study, descriptive statistics were used (SPSS version 27) to analyse the food waste knowledge of food handlers in supermarket kitchens. Presentation of the results was in the form of graphs, tables and charts. A frequency table was used. Results: The demographic profile of the participants indicated that many participants were women (60.7%) and 39.3% were men. The results suggest that to a larger extent, the food handlers have limited or insufficient knowledge on the customer’s profiles. The general food waste knowledge results was good. However only 47.7% of the respondents agreed that food waste can led to environmental damage. The majority of the responds (61.7%) strongly agreed that careful menu planning contributes towards preventing food waste. Food handles knowledge on food storage was good. Food preparation results reflected a good level of knowledge regarding the appropriate methods of food preparation to minimise food waste. Food handlers’ knowledge results revealed that participants had a moderate (45.4%) level of knowledge of green practices. There was a high level of knowledge on waste separation (82.3%). None of the supermarkets participated in any of the compositing activities to manage food waste. The observation results revealed poor waste prevention practices as influenced by the lack of menu planning. Lastly, menu planning results indicated that staff members recognise the importance of careful menu planning (61.7 percent strongly agreed) contributing towards preventing food waste. Factors and actions that were observed on food handler’s practices were mostly correct (56.7%) and 43.3 percent of the practices were lacking during food production in the kitchen. The results of the current waste prevention practices of food handlers in supermarkets revealed the necessity to develop food handlers’ guidelines. Conclusion and recommendations: It is evident that the supermarket food handlers may not be aware of the importance of a menu as a communication tool, which has a major influence on all the aspects of the foodservice unit including food waste prevention and management. Food handlers’ level of knowledge findings on food waste did not align with practices that were observed during meals production in supermarket kitchens. The level of food handlers’ knowledge and waste prevention practices has been determined and the guidelines on food waste prevention practices for this target group has been developed as the basis for further studies.
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    Analysing factors influencing length of stay and spending behaviour of air tourists to South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-11) Muzenda, Christopher; Labuschagne, V., Dr.; Slabbert, E., Prof.
    Tourism is regarded as a global phenomenon in the 21st Century and is the world’s largest and fastest growing industry. Many countries globally look at tourism as a key driver for economic growth and rescue to their economic slumber (Brida, Lanzilotta, Moreno & Santiñaque 2018:62). In South Africa, tourism contributed immensely to total employment and economic activity in the country and the government sees this industry as a great resource, the country’s strategy for expansion and a possible vehicle to take South Africa into a new economic trajectory. The National Department of Tourism developed the National Tourism Sector Strategy (NTSS 2016-2026) to facilitate the growth of this industry. As a result, direct tourism performance is measured on an ongoing basis against the goals set for South Africa of which two of the performance measures are length of stay and direct spend (NTSS 2019). These two are important because if visitors stay for longer periods at a destination, their spending increases as they partake in more tourism activities and pay for accommodation. This in turn increases the value attached to tourism as an engine for economic growth (SA Tourism 2007:59). Tourists’ spending and length of stay are therefore very important variables in the tourism industry as they contribute immensely to the economic value of tourism to specific destinations (Wong, Fong, & Law, 2016:958; Wang, Fong, Law & Fang 2018:472; Montañoa, Rossellób & Sansób 2019:112). Length of stay and average spend per day by tourists are fluctuating for South Africa as a tourism destination (SAT 2009-2018). The growth of both these variables has also been small over a period of ten years. These fluctuations and slow growth exert pressure on the tourism industry (SAT 2005-2018) and therefore annually form part of the strategic objectives of the National Department of Tourism (NTSS 2019). An in-depth analysis of these two variables is lacking and understanding the factors influencing these two variables within a South African context is of paramount importance to improving the economic value of tourism to the country. Although the factors influencing the two variables have been widely researched, these cannot be stereotyped to all destinations as they are destination specific (Barros & Machado 2010:693; Gemara & Correiab 2018:56) and these have not been analysed in the context of South Africa as a tourism destination. Though fluctuating patterns and slow growth on tourists’ length of stay and spending in South Africa is evident and is a cause of concern, the real problem here is lack of in-depth information on factors which influence these two key variables from a South African perspective. Even though South African Tourism have placed length of stay and spending of tourists as key strategic variables that need to be closely monitored and improved it needs action from the South African context. Once these factors are known, only then can South African Tourism be able to condition them positively for the benefit of the country’s economy. This research therefore sought to explore the factors influencing the stay duration and spending behaviour of international air tourists to South Africa and how these factors can be developed to increase tourists’ length of stay and spending in South Africa. Hence the aim of this research was to identify and analyse factors that influence length of stay and spending behaviour of international tourists reaching South Africa by air and in both cases, attention was given to the intrinsic and extrinsic contributing factors. Literature was reviewed on tourists’ travel behaviour by means of an in-depth discussion of travel motivations in general and travel motivations to South Africa specifically, tourists’ decision-making process, type of holiday decisions tourists makes, and the factors that influence these tourists’ decisions. The composition of the total tourism product was also analysed as this has an influence on tourists’ travel behaviour. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of literature concerning tourists’ spending behaviour and visitors’ length of stay, which form the pith of this study. The analysis focused on the definition of concepts such as tourists’ length of stay and spending behaviour, the importance of length of stay and spending behaviour of tourists in tourism, how tourism spending is measured, how tourism expenditure data is gathered, what constitutes tourism spending/expenditure and lastly the factors which influence tourists’ length of stay and spending behaviour. A quantitative paradigm in the form of a sample survey was used in conducting this research. This research follows a cross-sectional design (exploratory and descriptive in nature at the same time) which involves the collection of data on more than one case and at a single point in time. The target population of this study comprised international tourists who visited South Africa by air. These visitors were accessed at one of the top tourist attractions in Cape Town (one of the most popular cities for international tourists) namely Table Mountain Cable Way. Table Mountain was selected as a data collection hub as it enjoys the lion’s share of South Africa’s international tourist arrivals. According to the Table Mountain Aerial Cableway Company (TMACC2014:11), Table Mountain was named Africa’s leading tourist attraction in the World Travel Awards 2014 which makes it possible to pull many international tourists to the country of South Africa. Guided by previous similar studies, the sample size for this study was predetermined at 800 respondents of which 720 were completed without error signifying a response rate of 90%. A non-probability sampling technique namely convenience sampling was chosen for this survey as no list was available on who would be visiting the Table Mountain Arial Cable Way. The 800 international tourists were therefore purposively (only international visitors) and conveniently recruited depending on their willingness to participate in the research project; thus, a non-probability sampling technique was followed. Through the researcher distributing the questionnaire in person and using own judgement, a diverse range of nationalities, age groups and gender was included in the sample for it to be a close representation of all the visitors to South Africa as well as of the phenomenon under investigation. The questionnaire was designed and used to obtain detailed data on travel motivations, spending patterns and length of stay of the international air tourist market to South Africa. The questionnaire was designed from previous studies related to the above key variables and this added to the content validity of the questionnaire. A pre-test study was conducted by means of 10 survey questionnaires administered to academic experts at a University who had travelled abroad, and this added to the face validity of the questionnaire. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 for Windows was used to analyse the data and data gathered was presented by means of frequency tables and analytically described, subjected to exploratory factor analysis, one-way analysis of variances (ANOVA), t-tests, and Spearman’s rank order correlation analysis to establish the relationships between variables. Based on the empirical findings of this research project it is concluded that more males than females participated in this research and on average the age of the participants is 41 years, mostly married people and mainly staying in hotels and lodges. A variety of nationalities participated in this research but most of the respondents were from USA, UK followed by a huge margin from Germany, Netherlands and Australia, a profile which matches that of typical visitors to South Africa and were holders of a degree or diploma, followed by those with a postgraduate qualification with the majority being professionals followed by those in managerial positions. Most of the respondents to the study were first-time visitors to South Africa, travelling in a group of 3 or less people, and the average number of people in the travel group was 4 people and the average number of previous visits to South Africa was 1.68 times. Many of the respondents to this study travelled to South Africa mainly for holiday/leisure mostly to enjoy the natural attractions of South Africa since they placed high importance on appreciation of natural resources, enjoyment of beautiful scenery and sightseeing of tourist spots as important travel motivators. Most of the respondents to this study stayed on average 16.42 days which is higher than the annual average length of stay of international tourists. This information is very important from a marketing perspective as it helps in the profiling of tourists, targeting, tourism product development and positioning. Of importance as well is the fact that that the bigger the travel group the higher their spending will be. The most important aspects directly and significantly influencing length of stay were time constraints, the location of South Africa and financial constraints. It can be concluded that length of stay, availability of time to shop and respondents’ experience as a tourist directly and significantly contributes to visitor spending while interaction with the locals does not. The main travel motivations of international tourists to South Africa were Relaxation and Novelty, Social motivations, Cultural and heritage motivations, Personal Motivations and Destination motivations, of which Relaxation and Novelty and Cultural and Heritage motivations were rated high as travel motivations of tourists to South Africa. The main factors influencing length of stay of the respondents to this study were Personal experience, Access attributes, Destination attributes and Personal constraints. Of these factors, personal constraints and destination attributes ranked the highest as influencers of tourists’ length of stay. The respondents’ length of stay was least influenced by access attributes. The main factors influencing tourist spending patterns as determined by the factor analysis were: “Access and opportunity”, “Time availability” and “External influences”. Tourists’ spending was to a larger extent influenced by time availability followed by access and opportunity but least affected by external influences. The recommendations to increase length of stay and spending of inbound air tourists to South Africa made in this study are specific to South Africa as they were derived from a deep exploration of factors that influence air tourists’ length of stay and spending behaviour to South Africa. If South African Tourism, tourism industry associations and business owners implement these recommendations, this will improve both stay duration and spending of inbound air tourists to South Africa which has been fluctuating and showing slow growth. The recommendations most importantly add to literature that was lacking from a South African perspective on how length of stay and spending can be positively influenced for inbound air tourists to South Africa. The recommendations are as follows: South African Tourism, various industry associations (FEDHASA, ASATA, GHASA, RASA, SATSA), tour operators and travel agents, individual tourism and hospitality business companies that offer tourism products and services to inbound air tourists should take into consideration that length of stay is inhibited by personal constraints. It is thus important to offer value for money to the tourists. Continuous creative marketing strategies should be employed to attract long staying tourists to this country. South African Tourism, tourism business owners and industry associations should utilise new approaches and strategies that provides information about diverse range of attractions, spending opportunities and facilitate easy access as these are important to tourists who stay longer. Tourists’ personal experiences have a significant influence on tourists’ decisions to stay for longer periods hence South African Tourism and respective industry associations should offer thorough training to tourism and hospitality product/service providers and employees to enhance quality interaction with the visitors as this has a significant influence on the tourists’ decisions to stay longer in South Africa. Tourists that have been to South Africa before were influenced by personal experiences to stay for longer periods while the older and higher educated tourists were less influenced by the length of stay factors owing to their experience and confidence of what they want from a holiday in South Africa. South African Tourism, industry associations and tourism business owners should therefore target repeat visitors and the old, educated tourist market as they tend to stay for longer periods thus adding to the economic returns through their prolonged spending. Tourists that travel in larger groups are influenced by personal constraints, namely time and money; hence creating opportunities for value packages by tourism business owners in conjunction with wholesale and retail travel companies will ensure that this market stays longer in South Africa. Since destination attributes have proven to significantly influence length of stay of international tourists to South Africa, South Africa Tourism needs to create awareness on tourism opportunities that are not fully realised. This will increase tourists’ knowledge of the wide variety of activities and attractions to see in South Africa; hence they will budget long enough time to enjoy these products. Since spending patterns of tourists are influenced by time availability, if tourists stay longer, they will have enough time to shop and to experience destination products and services; hence their spending will rise. It is important to improve the environment related to Access and opportunity, Time availability and External influences as these factors influence how much tourists spend in the destination visited. The most important aspect to give attention to in order increase tourists’ spending is time availability. Opportunities should be created for tourists to spend money, which should be communicated on various platforms. South African Businesses that offer shopping opportunities (especially in shopping malls) should extend shopping hours late in the evening to allow tourists time to shop but safety and security should be geared up. Most of the tours do not always offer ample time for shopping and this should be communicated to the tour operators as it will also assist the local economy to grow.
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    Development, implementation and evaluation of nutrition guidelines on the dietary behaviour of the elderly in Ondo City, Nigeria
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021-01) Olomo, Jerome Abiola; Kearney, J. E., Prof.; Otitoola, L., Dr.
    The elderly in Nigeria are used to consuming foods that are inadequate in providing the required amount of nutrients for a healthy living due to uninformed food choices and dietary food intake habits. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the developed food and nutrition guidelines on the dietary behaviour of the elderly in Ondo West city Ondo, Nigeria. The developed food and nutrition guidelines were used to generate a training manual for the caregivers’ in order to apply and disseminate the correct information about food nutrients and food choices to the elderly through the knowledge acquired in the nutrition education training programme by the caregivers. A baseline study was conducted making use of the measuring instruments namely, socio-demographic questionnaire, 24-hour recall, food frequency questionnaire completed by the elderly attending the old people’s home and a nutrition knowledge questionnaire to test the nutrition knowledge of the caregivers. The methodology for the study was in six phases: Phase 1: is about the baseline survey, involving the training of fieldworkers, administering and completing questionnaires: Socio-demographic, 24-hour recall, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), by the elderly and the nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NKQ) by the caregivers. Phase 2: It involved the planning and development of food and nutrition guidelines for the caregivers of the elderly. Phase 3: This phase is about the training of the caregivers by the researcher, making use of the developed training manual with information sourced from the developed food and nutrition guidelines. Phase 4 was about the intervention programme in the study, i.e. the nutrition education programme (NEP) using information from guidelines of USA, Europe, New Zealand, South Africa, Nigeria and adapted FAO framework. Phase 5 was about the evaluation of the study, involving the completion of the nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NKQ), by the caregivers on post-test assessment after intervention, conducting observation and group interview. Phase 6 involved determining the impact of the food and nutrition guidelines and conducting a post-test making use of the research instruments, 24-hour recall, and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) with the main objective drawn and followed up by the conclusion and recommendations in the study. A content analysis of both the observation and focus group discussion resulted in compliance with the food and nutrition guideline specifications and a remarkable improvement on food preparation skills and performance of the old people’s homes’ personnel. The main findings in the study revealed that consistent and, full compliance, with effective implementation of the food and nutrition guidelines would improve the older people’s dietary behaviour and food consumption patterns. The NEP did not improve the knowledge of the caregivers at the expected rate and level because of the low-level basic scientific background of the caregivers. The socio-demographic questionnaire revealed that 61.7% of those researched were females and 38.3% males with an average age between 60 and 65 years; 54% were married with a household income between N20001- N50000 and majority of them spending between N10001-N15000 on two meals (40%) and three meals (30%). The result from 24-hour recall and the food frequency (FFQ) questionnaires indicated that, the intake of energy, calcium and fiber were below the recommended daily allowance (RDA), while protein and carbohydrate were higher, with an emphasis on starchy foods. The nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NKQ) identified the need for higher level of food and nutrients by the caregivers in their responsibility to the elderly, for improvement in their healthy dietary habits as indicated in the four sections of NKQ results (A, B, C and D). The consumption of fruits and vegetables were impressively high, after the intervention compared to before. Moreover, there was a drastic reduction in the consumption of carbohydrate-sourced food items, fat, sugar and salt as informed by the developed guidelines. Conclusively, the study was able to establish a reliable basis on the improvement of nutrient based dietary intake with the effective utilisation of available information in the guidelines. Also, awareness was created for the elderly to improve their eating habits through the exposure of the caregivers to training on nutrition knowledge. The researcher recommended an in-house organized refresher programme which should take place periodically and consistently on the information in the developed nutrition guidelines along with encouraging the personnel in the handling of foods (caregivers, chefs, cooks) for effective implementation.
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    Determining the environmentally responsible behaviour of tourists while visiting selected resorts in Limpopo
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-05) Maboya, M. K.; Slabbert, E., Prof.; Menzies, L., Dr.
    Tourism is a fast-developing industry globally, and the impacts of tourism are exceedingly diverse. The relationship between the environment and tourism has assumed a unique position in research through the development of tourism studies over the years. From an economic viewpoint, tourism is aimed at bringing income to local communities. It also could also increase and spread economic development, thus reducing the inequalities in income distribution by providing and creating employment opportunities. However, from an ecological standpoint, tourism poses a threat to the delicate environment. Thus, the pressure on natural resources remains a major problem globally, and the fact that tourism-related activities and facilities such as resorts contribute to the scarcity and overuse of resources is of great concern. The rapid growth in tourist numbers poses a significant threat to natural resources, more so tourists are significant consumers of natural resources such as water and electricity while on holiday. Overuse and depletion of these natural resources can cause environmental degradation in and around a destination. Even though some tourists hold positive environmental attitudes, they may not behave environmentally responsible while visiting resorts, because they want to experience the destination in full. Behavioural change is a complex process involving the interaction between numerous variables of which attitude is only one attribute. Attitude itself is also a complex attribute which is challenging to define and may involve multiple and even contradictory values. Previous studies indicate that positive attitudes toward the environment do not necessarily lead to environmentally responsible behaviour. Researchers have found a weak relationship between attitudes and behaviour. Although there is not a direct or linear relationship between attitude and behaviour, they may have significant causal effects on behaviour. Suffice to say, however, viiattitudes, especially strong specific and narrowly defined attitudes that have been acquired through direct experience, that influence the person’s self-interest and are accessible, have a strong effect on behaviour. For this reason, a general indication of the variable ‘environmental attitudes’ was obtained by recoding the respondents’ identification and ratings of severe environmental problems when visiting LWR in Limpopo. The measurement of environmental concern or rather behaviour is generally regarded as an integrated component of broader attitudinal dispositions. This study attempted to determine whether tourists are behaving in an environmentally responsible manner while visiting selected resorts in Limpopo South Africa. This was approached based on an empirical study which followed a quantitative research design. A non-probability, convenience sampling method by means of a web-survey was adopted. The target population for this study were tourists to all LWR (Limpopo Wildlife Resorts) in Limpopo South Africa. Once the data was collected, it was captured and processed by means of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Environmentally responsible behaviour of tourists visiting LWR was analysed by means of descriptive statistics, using factor analysis and ANOVA. With the information gathered, the researcher wanted to test if there was a difference in visitor behaviour in comparison to their attitudes toward the environment. ANOVA was used to compare the difference in visitor’s behaviour and attitudes while visiting resorts and the use of factor analysis as a procedure was necessary for data reduction and summarisation. Therefore, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to investigate how tourist environmentally responsible behaviour differs between visitor profiles. The data showed that females agreed more strongly with statements empathetic to the environment than male respondents did. Furthermore, the data showed that as one becomes older, so the agreement with the opinion of empathetic opinion to the environment becomes larger. The apathetic environmental opinion factor shows an opposite tendency, namely as one grows older, the agreement with the apathetic opinion factor becomes less. Awareness has become heightened, which is shown in the visitor’s value of nature and leads to environmentally conscious behaviour and activities to preserve the environment. Moreover, an increased concern of the environment has made consumers more aware of the environmental impacts of their viiipurchase decision concerning the service industry. The increased awareness of environmental impacts of tourism has led to the emergence of tourist called, among others, environmentally responsible tourist. Therefore, one can say that tourist as consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of protecting the environment and more involved in practising environmentally friendly behaviour while on holiday.
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    The relationship between marketing effectiveness and the marketing mix for guesthouses in the Vaal Region
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2012-11) Munyai, K. C.; Sumbana, H. F., MBA; Slabbert, E., Prof.
    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between marketing effectiveness and the marketing mix of guesthouses in the Vaal Region. This goal was achieved by firstly exploring the application of marketing and marketing effectiveness in the tourism industry through a literature study. Based on the literature study a questionnaire was developed and a survey conducted to analyse the marketing mix as well as marketing effectiveness of guesthouses and the relationship between these two as possible factors influencing both. Marketing is a very important management function in any business. It is a process focused on matching the right customer with a certain product or service in order to satisfy their wants and needs. Marketing can create a competitive advantage for organisations which influences the success and longterm profitability of the organisation. The marketing approach for small organisations differs from that of larger organisations due to limited resources, lack of specialist expertise and a limited impact in the marketplace. Smaller organisations such as guesthouses seem to handle marketing in a more informal and unstructured manner and thereby underestimating the value and role of marketing. Marketing is directly influenced by the application of the four Ps, namely product, price, place and promotion. The planning and application of the four Ps, however, contributes to successful marketing. The question is whether guesthouse owners realise this. Research was undertaken at the guesthouses in the Vaal Region to determine the relationship between the marketing mix and marketing effectiveness through the eyes of the consumer, since they need to react to the marketing material. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed of which 451 were completed by the visitors. Firstly, the data was used to compile tables and graphs to interpret the descriptive data: demographic profile of respondents, travel preferences of respondents, a descriptive view of the marketing mix elements and the effectiveness of marketing for guesthouses. Secondly, by means of a factor analyses, the marketing mix elements were grouped according to price, place, product, promotion (advertising) and promotion (contact), and the marketing effectiveness elements were grouped according to quantity control and quality control. Product was found to be the most important element of the marketing mix and quality control was found to be the most important element of marketing effectiveness. Thirdly, no significant differences were found on the marketing mix elements and the marketing effectiveness factors and gender and marital status. The spearman rank order correlations revealed that older people consider product as a marketing mix element to be less important. Frequent travellers consider promotion (advertising), promotion (contact) and quality control to be less important. Lastly, definite correlations were found between the marketing mix elements and the marketing effectiveness factors. This implies that even smaller questhouses should implement the marketing mix elements which can assist in improving the marketing effectiveness of the guesthouse. Guesthouses will yield better results when implementing the marketing mix effectively. This study contributes to the information that already exists concerning the marketing mix and marketing effectiveness but more in terms of the relationship between the two.
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    Exploring the contributions of corporate social investment to the company’s corporate image and reputation: a case study of a petrochemical company
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2018-09) Ralehoko, Katleho; Maleho, Lazarus M., Dr.; Oksiutycz-Munyawiri, Anna
    Corporate Social Investment (CSI) has turned out to be a significant subject in the businesses environment in the past twenty years and is perceived as an important element of the organisational image and corporate reputation. Corporate social investment communication provides stakeholders with information about the company‟s involvement, and about being accountable to the society. Companies use their communication about CSI initiatives to project a positive image of themselves to the stakeholders. The purpose of the study was to explore how the company‟s Corporate Social Investment activities contribute to the company‟s image and corporate reputation among the local community. The study also looked at the possible gaps between the image projected by the company through their communication about CSI activities and the communities‟ perceptions of these activities. The researcher used a case study qualitative approach with multiple data sources. The company‟s online press releases were analysed with a view to determining the corporate image projected by the company. In the second stage three focus groups were conducted with community activists, university students, and unemployed community members in order to understand the different perceptions how CSI activities influence the community stakeholders perceptions on organisation‟s reputation. The findings indicate that although there is a gap between the projected image communicated by a company and stakeholders‟ perceptions about company‟s reputation the community is generally familiar with CSI of the petrochemical company in question and that CSI activities contribute to the positive reputation of the company. Furthermore, the findings highlight the challenges of not including community stakeholders in decision making when creating CSI initiatives. Interestingly, the study reveals that organisations with CSI activities aligned to the national framework are considered socially responsible.
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    The local communities' perceptions on the role and benefits of tourism in the protected areas: a case of the Kruger National Park.
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-04) Khashane, Rofhiwa Stein; Slabbert, E., Prof.; Lekaota, L., Dr.
    Tourism is poised to play a greater role than ever before in terms of job creation, empowerment and economic growth, both on the global stage and in South Africa. In 2011, the tourism sector worldwide supported 258 million direct, indirect and induced employment opportunities. Community participation should be considered necessary to obtain community support, and the acceptance of tourism development projects, in addition, helps to ensure that the benefits (employment and/or entrepreneurships) are related to the local community’s needs. The main aim of the current study was to analyse the local communities’ perceptions of the role and benefits of tourism in the protected areas concerned. The analysis was approached on the basis of surveying the local communities concerned. The quantitative approach adopted as the chosen research method ensured that the required descriptive statistics could be derived from the research material available. A non-probability sampling approach was used to collect the data involved. The study was conducted in two villages, Ka-Mhinga and Ka-Matiani, adjacent to the Kruger National Park. Based on the results obtained, the surveyed community members of Ka-Mhinga and Ka- Matiani were found to share similar perceptions regarding the broader communities’ participation in, and decision-making control of the tourism operations in the area. The female participants agreed significantly more strongly than did the male participants concerning which aspects impeded an appreciation of the benefits of tourism. Such agreement probably indicates that the female participants perceived themselves as being worse affected by tourism than were the male participants. The participants from the two villages who perceived themselves as being excluded from the managerial decisions taken agreed significantly more strongly with the exclusion factor than the participants who perceived themselves as having been included in the managerial decisions taken regarding the protected areas. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the communities from the two villages receive minimal benefits from tourism. Some of the residents noted that they were not in receipt of what they had been promised when the Kruger National Park opened. The participants from the above-mentioned villages agreed that the locals were not employed in the protected area, and that the tourism goods which were sold at the Punda Maria information centre were not produced by the local residents, as well as that the Park’s management were influenced by nepotism in their employment of workers. The study concluded that an education and training budget should be provided by both the government and the protected areas. The involvement of the communities adjacent to the Kruger National Park in tourism planning would be likely to promote their participation in, and their beneficiation from, tourism. The community residents of Ka- Mhinga and Ka-Matiani should form part of the related control processes and decisio-nmaking, so as to improve the level of benefits obtained from tourism, which would enable them to enjoy the benefits of the Kruger National Park. Despite the study revealing the benefits of tourism gleaned by the two villages, engaging in an increased number of initiatives is likely to elicit even more benefits, with all the investors participating in the operation, execution, monitoring, and management of tourism activities as a form of collaboration.
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    Determining the key success factors for marketing of tourism establishment in Lesotho.
    (2018-10) Nqosa, Nthabiseng Eunicia; Lekaota, L., Dr; Burger, S. E., Dr
    Given that the competition in the tourism industry has intensified worldwide, there is a need for more effective tourism marketing. Tourism marketing lies in designing the marketing strategies and communications appropriate for target markets so that profits can be generated. Through tourism marketing, tourism establishments could also attract more tourists, anticipate and satisfy the existing and potential tourists’ needs and wants. This study therefore, determines the key success factors (KSFs) for marketing of tourism establishments in Lesotho. KSFs are factors that allow tourism establishments to compete effectively and to attract more tourists. The primary objective of this study was to determine the KSFs for marketing of tourism establishments in Lesotho. To achieve the primary objective of this study, two secondary objectives were identified in Chapter1 and achieved in the subsequent chapters. The first objective was to analyse the KSFs for marketing of tourism establishments in by means of an in-depth literature review. This objective was achieved in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. Chapter 2 provided an overview of marketing and the following were discussed: marketing in tourism, characteristics of service marketing in tourism, specific features in services, importance of marketing, description of marketing as a process and a marketing strategy, market as well as the marketing mix. In Chapter 3, various KSFs for marketing tourism establishments were discussed. The second objective was to assess empirically the KSFs for marketing tourism establishments in Lesotho. This objective was met in Chapter 5 by means of descriptive statistics, which included biographic information of the respondents in this study. In addition, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the marketing-related aspects implemented by tourism establishments in Lesotho and to identify the KSFs for marketing tourism establishments in Lesotho. Last but not least this objective was also achieved by making recommendations based on the KSFs for marketing. A quantitative approach was employed for this study. The sampling consisted of two phases: During the first phase, convenience sampling, a non-probability sampling method, were used to identify the regions in Lesotho that formed part of this study and the following regions were selected to be part of the study, namely Maseru, Leribe, Berea and Mafeteng. During the second phase of the sampling, all tourism establishments in the specified regions that appeared on a list provided by the Lesotho Tourism Development Corporation (LTDC) were selected to be part of the study.137 questionnaires were distributed and completed by either the managers or marketers of the establishment between June and July 2017. The questionnaire included sections about biographic profile of tourism establishments in Lesotho that participated in this study, implementation of KSFs, importance of KSFs, questions about establishments’ marketing information and comments or suggestions of the respondents from the following sectors: airline, travel trade, attraction and accommodation. Data were captured and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 (SPSS). The data analysis for this study was done in two phases. Phase 1 included descriptive statistics and Phase 2 consisted of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation were used to summarise data on the KSFs for marketing of tourism establishments in Lesotho. The factor analysis for this study was run with Oblim with Kaiser Normalisation as a rotation method and the principal component analysis as an extraction method for better interpretation of results. The eigenvalues criterion was also used to determine the number of principal components based on the assumption that only eigenvalues greater than 1. The data were tested using the Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin 0.801(KMO) measure of sampling adequacy and the Bartlett test of sphericity. From the results a total of ten KSFs for marketing of tourism establishments in Lesotho were identified. These include the following: conduct thorough marketing planning, enhance the attractiveness of the tourism establishment, effectively advertise the establishment, ensure the accessibility of the tourism establishment, and perform strategic marketing management to improve tourist satisfaction, conduct marketing research, manage service quality, effectively communicate with staff and tourists, promote the tourism establishment through different marketing mediums and achieve tourist loyalty. All ten factors accounted for 71% of the total variance. It was recommended that the tourism establishments in Lesotho implement these KSFs in order to successfully address the needs and requirements of their target markets. In addition results revealed the KSFs that are implemented by tourism establishments in Lesotho namely: conduct thorough marketing planning, enhance customer relationship through effective communication, advertise the establishment, manage customer satisfaction, manage customer loyalty and monitor business environments. All six factors accounted for 53% of variance. It was also recommended that this research be repeated annually, as the findings would assist tourism managers or marketers of tourism establishments in Lesotho with the KSFs for marketing to better market their tourism products both nationally and globally. This study is of value not only for clear understanding of the KSFs for marketing of tourism establishments but also for improving the profitability and overall success of tourism establishments.
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    Determining the market profile of black visitors to a resort in the Vaal region.
    (2012-11) Mojakisane, M. M.; Labuschagne, V.; Slabbert, E., Prof.
    Tourism is considered one of the most important industries in the global economy and is still growing, especially in South Africa. Effective marketing is only possible if knowledge is available on tourists’ decisions, wants, needs and so forth. This will allow for effective market segmentation and improve the understanding of the market and what the market requires. This will also lead to more effective marketing campaigns, marketing spend and use of scarce resources. This can be achieved by studying the unique characteristics of the various markets in South Africa. Market segmentation refers to a technique used by tourism organisations to divide a market into smaller, more clearly defined, groups that share similar needs, wants and characteristics. This will allow for tailor-made products and services. Although the tourism industry in South Africa is well developed for the Caucasian market it is not as familiar with the black market and its needs. Therefore products cannot be developed according to the life styles of black South Africans. This requires more research to be conducted. The main purpose of the study was thus to segment the black market visiting Abrahamsrust Resort in the Vaal Region. This has enabled the researcher to identify important factors with regard to market segmentation to be implemented for black tourists in the Vaal Region and enable marketers to target the selected market segments in the region. A total number of 400 questionnaires were distributed among visitors of which 319 were completed and used. All questionnaires were distributed at Abrahamsrust Resort. Data were used and captured in the form of graphs and tables so as to design the profile. The main variables of this study were gender, occupation, language, province of origin, number of visits, number of children, number of days spent as well as average spend. The results found can contribute in the sense of helping marketers to target the selected target market. Suggestions from attendees were that management should improve facilities and services at the events. In order to cluster the segments, hierarchical clustering was done which revealed three significant clusters based on travel motivations, namely Social Relaxers, Quality Seekers and Loyal Relaxers. Cluster one is motivated by social and relaxing needs, cluster two focuses on quality and value for money aspects and cluster three seems to be the loyal visitors to the resort travelling for relaxation purposes. In terms of describing the three clusters it was found that the demographic segmentation variables did not differ significantly between the clusters, with only a small difference in terms of gender. In terms of describing the behavioural segmentation variables it was also found that the clusters did not differ significantly but differences were found on number of days at the resort and recreation activities preferred for the children. Besides the differences in travel motivations it was thus found that the current market is very much homogenous. This holds certain implications for the marketing strategy of the resort.
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    Determining the effectiveness of health communication in the Gauteng province : a case study of child immunisation in the Vaal Region.
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-02-28) Matsoso, Lebohang Mampone Lesego; Maleho, L. M., Dr.; Miruka, O., Prof.
    Health communication has become an integral component of quality health care. However, it is not just the process of giving information, but rather an active process that facilitates the use of information to improve decision-making and change behaviour that lead to positive health outcomes. Therefore, effective communication should be encouraged by means of two-way interaction between the health practitioners and the patients. The purpose of this research study was to determine the effectiveness of health communication in the Vaal region, using Levai Mbatha clinic as a case study. The study used the mixed method design consisting of both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative research design was done through the distribution of questionnaires to parents in order to ascertain how child immunisation issues are communicated to them. Simple random sampling approach was used to gather the data, and the sample size for this design was 100 parents. For the qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews was used to determine the effectiveness of health communication information as disseminated by health practitioners to parents. Purposive sampling approach was used to select six (6) health practitioners. From the descriptive results (quantitative) it was evident that there is ineffective health communication at Levai Mbatha clinic. Parents are not aware of other illnesses related to child immunisation, and they feel that it would be better if the content of communication mediums were to be written in their mother tongue. It is therefore evident that, due to lack of understanding of the content, parents cannot participate in the discussions related to child immunisation this hinders effective communication. The interviews (quantitative) revealed that health practitioners felt that much needs to be done when it comes to the dissemination of child immunisation information. They indicate that there is not enough health communication material at their disposal to distribute to parents. Furthermore, there seem to be a challenge in language when they have to communicate with parents. Consequently, the efforts to effectively communicate child immunisation to parents effectively becomes insignificant.
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    Determining the contribution of online corporate communication to brand reputation among Generation Y consumers in Vaal Region
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2016-05-30) Kunene, Sibongile; Maleho, L. M.; Oksiutycz-Munyawiri, A.
    ABSTRACT The internet has become one of the most powerful communication tools. Therefore, much has been written over the past few years about the rise and use of online communication, but there is still very limited research on the use of online communication by Generation Y members and corporations in an African context. Consequently, the internet has become one of the most powerful communication tool. This has led to the evolutions of the public relations discipline in keeping up with trends, embracing new opportunities and using diverse and effective communication mediums to engage with different stakeholders. This dissertation determines the contribution of online corporate communication to brand reputation amongst Generation Y members in the Vaal Region and the effect it can have on the perceived reputation of an organisation. This was done though ascertaining ways in which Generation Y in the Vaal Region (Evaton, Sebokeng and Vanderbijlpark) uses different online corporate communicate tools to engage with brands. This quantitative study used a cross-sectional descriptive research approach. Two hundred questionnaires that comprised of three sections namely: (1) demographics and sources of information, (2) online communication behaviour and (3) online reputation management were distributed amongst Generation Y members in the Vaal Region. The respondents were between the ages of 18-35, descriptive statistics such as frequencies, the mean, medium and the mode, factor analysis, t-tests and ANOVA were used to analyse the data obtained from the respondents. From the results it is evident that the growth of the internet and the development of smartphones, iPads and tablets have drastically changed the way people communicate, especially Generation Y members, thus leading brands to actively operate online. Social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube have taken over the technological aspect of two way interaction between customers and brands thereby influencing an organisation’s reputation. In as much as online communication has brought about change to the public relations discipline it has a detrimental impact on a company’s reputation if not managed properly. Therefore, companies that use online communication and those that do not use online communication should be aware of Generation Y’s online brand engagement, behaviour and expectation as this will have an effect on the organisations reputation when engaging with members from this group.
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    Determining the contribution of the national school nutrition programme to the total nutrient intake of Mogale city learners
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2018) Monala, Pumla Kgomotso; Dicks, Prof. E. G.; Egal, Prof. A. A.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) has made on the total nutrient intake of Kagiso learners. This was done by investigating the nutrient intake of school children participating in the NSNP (experimental group) and comparing this to the nutrient intake of learners participating in the tuck-shop or lunch box (control group) from one school. The research methodology was undertaken in two phases, namely phase one; planning and phase two; data collection and analysis. The following measuring methods were applied; socio-demographics, household food insecurity assessment scale, anthropometry measurements, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), 24-hour recall and the observation of the NSNP during the school lunch breaks. Anthropometry measurements were analysed according to the World Health Organization standards (WHO 2008), socio-demographics, and household food insecurity assessment scale and FFQ were captured on an Excel spreadsheet by the researcher and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 for descriptive statistics such as frequencies, standard deviations and confidence intervals. An expediency sample of 160 primary school children aged 6-13 years, including girls (n=84) and boys (n=76) and 106 caregivers were recruited into the study. The results showed that majority of caregivers (59%) completed secondary level education, followed by 39% with primary level or college completion (2%). The employment rate in the Kagiso households of the sampled group was low with 20% of caregivers being unemployed. Out of the 76% of the employed caregivers, 26% were permanently employed and 51% were temporarily employed with contract work and piece jobs. The highest monthly income (42%) was between R1000-R3000 and the lowest (38%) was less than R1000 with only R101-R200 to spend on food per week. The food insecurity status of Kagiso learners showed that 44% of school children were food secure, and 56% were food insecure – of these, 29% experienced hunger. Heightfor-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were measured for all of the 160 children. The group was categorized as follows; school children participating in the NSNP (n=59) and children using the tuck-shop foods (n=35) and lunch box (n=66). The nutritional status of Kagiso learners from the sampled group showed that more boys were stunted (13%) and wasted (12%) while of the girls, 30% were at risk of being overweight, with only 2% reported to be overweight. The majority of boys reported to be stunted and wasted were from the NSNP group and the girls reported to be overweight or at risk of being overweight were from the tuck-shop group. Thus, the learners from the lunchbox had optimum growth status when compared to the other two groups. The respondents consumed a mainly high carbohydrate diet with a low consumption of vegetable and fruits. The results from the Food Variety Score (FVS) revealed a low individual mean (2.25±1.57) in the legume and nuts group, followed by a medium individual mean (7.9±2.81) in the fruits and other juices group, 7.16±2.68 in the vegetable group, and lastly, the highest individual mean (9.26±3.04) in the cereal, roots and tubers diversity. The results from the top 20 popular food items ranked as follows; maize meal stiff (1st), maize meal porridge (5th), white rice (6th), white bread (7th) brown bread (9th), potato fries (12th), breakfast cereal (13th) and samp and beans (14th). Cabbage (15th) and pumpkin (20th) were the most popular vegetables and there were no fruits within the top 20 popular list of food items. The Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) of the NSNP (n=59) meals was below the 1/3 (33.3%) and 30% dietary requirements for lunch meals. This was very evident regarding vitamin A (16.85%), energy kilojoules (23.78%), calcium (18%), folate (26.72%), zinc (15.71%), dietary fiber (25.71%) and iodine (4.65%). Iron (38.98%) was slightly above the 1/3 and 30% dietary intake, but there were a high percentage (61%) of respondents who did not meet the EARs of 5.9mg for iron. The results revealed an inadequate contribution by the NSNP to the nutrient intake of Kagiso learners. The poor intake of folate, vitamin A and dietary fiber in this sampled group is linked to the low consumption of vegetable and fruits. Results from this observational study showed that a majority of respondents do not participate in the NSNP when they do not have their own eating utensils. Respondents also revealed that the NSNP meals caused allergies such as skin rash while some mentioned diarrhea as the cause of not eating meals from the NSNP. Hence, a larger percentage (41%) of school children preferred to participate in the lunch box rather than in the NSNP (37%). The high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake and the poor nutritional status of Kagiso learners in the sampled group, is an indication that strict monitoring of dietary measures needs to be implemented and continuously evaluated to ensure that positive nutritional results are obtained by the NSNP across South Africa