Theses and Dissertations (Information Communication Technology)

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    Diffusion innovation, adoption, and acceptance of a recommender systems in higher education
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-04-21) Hlungwane, Ntsako Morgen; Sehume, Odilia M. M., Dr.; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    Recommender systems (RS) are widely used to help with reducing information overload by suggesting relevant items to users proactively or reactively. The usefulness of RS has made them used in different sectors, such as e-commerce, retail environments, and even the education sector. RS is penetrating different sectors with varying speeds, and its adoption and acceptance vary in different sectors. Therefore, this study investigated the diffusion, adoption, and acceptance of RS in higher education. A quantitative method was used in this study. The data was collected using questionnaires and a model was proposed. Two hundred and sixty-one usable questionnaires were received from participants. The requirements for the study's reliability and validity were both met. The results have shown that diffusion, adoption, and acceptance of RSs in higher education do not occur by chance. They also indicated that diffusion has a positive influence on the adoption with β= 0.625, Sig. = 0.000, and adoption has a positive influence on the acceptance with β = 0.606, Sig. = 0.000 of RSs in the higher education sector. The benefits gained by those who use RSs have a positive effect on RS diffusion (= 0.695, Sig. = 0.000) and adoption (= 0.579, Sig. = 0.000), allowing RSs to grow in the higher education sector. RS are still in their early diffusion stage in higher education as an educational tool. There is a need to intentionally promote RS benefits in higher education to enable a faster diffusion of the technology.
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    The use of visualization of corporate data in strategic Information and Communications Technology industrialization
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2013-02-20) Dippenaar, Francois; Conradie, P., Dr.
    Global companies tend to have problems in knowing the systems, assets and resources they have within their global footprint. This tends to be costly to the company as there tends to be purchases of the same systems, assets and resources that are already available in another business unit or department within the company. This leads to money being wasted on research, procurement and/or training, to name a few. You can't manage what you don't know about. This thesis will show how the visualisation of corporate data is possible and has sustainable benefit to a company. Knowing the status of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) environment in a company at some point in time is crucial in planning and implementing strategies with the future in mind. Global View, which will be explained in this thesis, is key in facilitating the extracting of information from all the sites globally and presenting the information in a logical and structured way. Information gathering from these sites using Global View needs to be done in an auditing fashion with the focus on accurate and precise information with an option which would allow the audit to be a continuous and automatic process. Global View is a tool to facilitate the implementation of ICT Industrialization through a process of gathering the relevant ICT information worldwide with specific reference to each site. Global View displays the relevant information from systems, assets, resources and environments in an easily accessible format. The functionality that is built into the concept in this thesis is the geographical and geospatial orientation which is linked to the relevant sites as well as time references related to Greenwich Mean Time to make users aware of differences in time when communicating with people in other countries either individually or multiple sites simultaneously.
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    The use of social networking services to enhance the learning experience and academic performance of tertiary level learners
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2017-01) Da Rocha, R. D.; Lombard, A.; Jordaan, A., Prof.
    There are many learning paradigms in the academic field, many of which have been used since the advent of universities and other learning institutions. However, the advent and subsequent popularisation of the Internet in the early 1990's has led to the development of new learning paradigms. Simultaneously, students currently enrolled at higher education institutions (HEI) fall under the Generation Z cohort, otherwise known as Millennials. This generation has grown up with widespread usage of the internet, and research has shown that engagement with these students in an educational setting has slowed down. This study endeavoured to establish whether the use of Social Networking Services (SNSs) could aid to better engage student in the teaching and learning process, and if so, whether there would be a measurable improvement in the marks of students enrolled in a final year Information Technology (IT) module at a HEI. Facebook and YouTube were the SNSs chosen as the focus of the study. Data collection was achieved by means of mixed-methods methodology. Semi-structured interviews were held with lecturers to determine their perceptions regarding the use of Facebook from an educational perspective. thematic analysis was performed to identify prominent themes in the qualitative data. Statistical analysis was performed on the result of two groups of students that took the final year module over two semesters. An action research based case study was designed as intervention for students in the 2nd semester involving the use of SNSs. The marks of the two groups were compared and contrasted to determine whether an improvement in results had taken place. Students participating in the action research case study also completed a survey for the purpose of gauging their experiences in the use of SNSs for the action research interventions are also highlighted and discussed, and thematic analysis is performed. After analysis of the gathered data had taken place, it was clear that the majority of participants in the study found that SNSs could add value to the teaching and learning process and there was a small to moderate improvement in results. Guidelines for other institutions that would like to integrate SNSs into their teaching and learning processes are proposed and a model has been developed.
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    Framework for Adoption of Information and Communication Technology security culture in SMMEs in Gauteng Province, South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019) Mokwetli, M. A.; Tshepiso, Nkoana; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become prevalent in our everyday business and personal lives. As such, users and organisations must know how to protect themselves against human errors that led to more companies losing or sharing information that should not be shared. The issue emanates from lack of ICT security culture both in individuals and organisations. This research is based on a wide theoretical review that is focused on proposing a conceptual model on technological, environmental and organisational factors that influence the adoption of ICT security culture and implementation in Small Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). Factors or determinants that influence the adoption of ICT security culture in SMMEs in the Gauteng province were investigated. Questionnaires were distributed to examine the perception of ICT security culture adoption among SMMEs in the Gauteng province South Africa. A sample of 647 individuals from different SMMEs in the Gauteng province returned the questionnaire. The results of the research study show that technological context (perceived benefits), environmental context (government regulations) and organisational context (management support) determinants have direct influence on the ICT security culture adoption. The recommendation is that information security awareness programmes must be put in place. Further research is recommended using more determinants that might have a positive impact toward the adoption of the ICT security culture. In order to minimize data breaches due to human error it is recommended that SMMEs around Gauteng Province in South Africa adopt the framework as outlined in this research study.
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    Acceptance of biometric authentication security technology on mobile devices
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022) Malatji, W. R.; Van Eck, Rene, Dr.; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    Mobile devices are rapidly becoming a key computing platform, transforming how people access business and personal information. Accessing business and personal data using mobile devices requires authentication that is secure. The world is rapidly becoming connected and all users of mobile devices need to be clear regarding individual data security. As a result, biometrics for mobile devices has come into existence. Biometric technology can be applied on mobile devices to improve the trustworthiness of wireless services. Furthermore, it is of great importance and necessary to start paying attention to and investing in mobile biometric technologies, as they are quickly turning into tools of choice for productivity. In the literature review, it shows that few studies measured the acceptance of biometric authentication technology on mobile devices. This study seeks to find out the perceptions as to the acceptance of biometric authentication technology on mobile devices. TAM2 was used as the foundation for generating the hypothesis and developing the conceptual framework for this study. This quantitative study used a survey-based questionnaire to collect data from 305 participants. The simple random sampling technique was used to select participants for this study. The response rate was 98% of the expected population, which was a total of 302 valid responses. A descriptive analysis was deployed to provide a description of respondents’ demographic characteristics. SPSS was used to compute the multiple regressions in order to evaluate the research hypotheses. The findings of this study revealed that perceived humanness, perceived interactivity, perceived social presence, perceived ease of use and subjective social norm, and perceived usefulness and trust are important determinants of customers’ intention to accept and use mobile biometric devices. It was found that reliability is a good predictor of trust. On the other hand privacy, identity theft and combining data are also important determinants of trust. This work can be used to strengthen biometric authentication technology in-cooperation with mobile devices for simplicity of use. Since most mobile devices are used for personal and business information, further research on the acceptance of biometric authentication technology on mobile devices is needed.
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    A model for the adoption and acceptance of mobile farming platforms (MFPs) by smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-01) Masimba, Fine; Appiah, Martin, Dr.; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    The agriculture sector is the lifeblood of the economies of the world's least developed countries (LDCs). In Zimbabwe, this sector is considered to be the backbone of Zimbabwe's economy, and as a result, it is the sector that supports the economic growth of the country, food security, and poverty eradication efforts. Furthermore, the use of mobile technology has continued to rise in Zimbabwe, and farmers now can obtain agricultural information through the use of mobile technology. Mobile phones are increasingly being integrated into current agricultural trade businesses, owing to the critical role they serve in facilitating information transmission between farmers and buyers. The potential of mobile phones in agriculture spawned mAgriculture, which is the use of mobile phones to provide agricultural information and services. Variousitechnology companies in iZimbabwe have come up with various mobile farming platforms as innovation, with the aim of improving overall performance among smallholder farmers. In order to find the usefullness of these mobile farming platforms, it imperative to measure the adoption and acceptance of this technology in the farming environment. The study sought to investigate the adoption and acceptance of mobile farming platforms in Zimbabwe through a more comprehensive model based on UTAUT 2 that encapsulates the key factors that influence user adoption and acceptance of mobile farming platforms. The main aim of the study was to inform technology start-up companies and other mobile application developers in the development of mobile farming platforms or applications that can be fully adopted and accepted by users, taking into cognisance all salient factors affecting their adoption and acceptance. The model has been used to investigate smallholder farmers in a developing country such as Zimbabwe. The model explores the effect of attitude as one of the key determinants that affect the behavioral intention to use mobile farming platforms. In addition, the model looked at the moderating effect of Hofstede's five cultural dimensions on the key determinants that influence behavioral intention as well as actual use of mobile farming platforms at individual level. A total of 411 questionnaires were received from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe's three major provinces who were using mobile farming platforms. Structural Equation Modelling was utilized to test the hypothesized conceptual model. Reliability and validity checks were done to the model instrument. As hypothesized, the findings of this study revealed that performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE) and facilitating conditions (FC) are significant determinants of the newly added variable Attitude (AT). Attitude (AT), together with social influence (SI), facilitating conditions (FC), hedonic motivation (HM), price value (PV), and habit (HB) were found to be significant determinants of behavioral intention and usage of mobile farming platforms for smallholder farmers. The results also showed that cultural dimensions have a moderating effect on user acceptance of mobile farming platforms. According to the findings, attitude and culture are significant factors to consider when analyzing farmers' behavioral intentions and use of mobile farming platforms. The findings of the study contribute to the literature by validating and supporting the applicability of the extended UTAUT 2 for the adoption and acceptance of mobile farming platforms by smallholder farmers in developing countries. The theoretical contribution of the study was through the extension of UTAUT 2 where attitude was added as one of the new key determinants of behavioral intention and cultural dimensions were added as mediators. The other contribution is to the Zimbabwean farming community where the study was conducted.
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    A model for information technology optimisation in supply chain and logistics of Libya oil and gas sector: the case of Zueitina oil company
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-12) Tarom, Fathi A.; Lombard, A.; Jordaan, A., Prof.
    Crude oil is among the most in-demand and desirable commodities across the world today. The multiple uses of crude oil are widespread, ranging from the generation of energy to its use as fuel for the petrochemical and transportation sectors. Because of the high use of and demand for crude oil worldwide, the petroleum industry (also known as the oil and gas industry) is a significantly role player in the world economy. Libya‘s oil and gas industry is deemed the most essential and important sector in this country, as Libya is mainly dependent on proceeds from this sector. However, existing information technologies are not always optimally applied and utilised. This, together with the challenge that information technologies in the supply chain system and logistics processes of some of Libya‘s oil and gas companies are not always sufficient, the productivity of the country‘s oil and gas supply chain is compromised, and this results in revenue losses because of wasteful expenditure. This research therefore aimed to determine what innovative information technologies should be considered by Zueitina Oil Company (as case study) in Libya to enhance its supply chain and logistics processes. Two primary research questions (PRQs) were formulated for this research, namely: (i) What is the current status of Libya‘s oil and gas sector in terms of oil production and export? (ii) What innovative information technologies need to be considered by Zueitina Oil Company in Libya to contribute towards optimising its supply chain and logistics processes? This study followed the qualitative research methodology, as the data collected were qualitative and the research design was inductive. A case study strategy was adopted, with Zueitina Oil Company in Libya as the case under study. The primary sources for the research were the management of the supply chain and logistics departments of Zueitina Oil Company. The qualitative data collection method selected was a survey conducted by means of telephone and focus group interviews. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. In total, five themes and six sub-themes emerged from the findings obtained from the analysis. This research contributes to the scientific body of knowledge by proposing an Information Technology Optimisation Model for the Supply Chain of Zueitina Oil Company in Libya in order to achieve increased revenues, reduced costs, and improved customer services, among others.
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    A framework for the adoption of Hackathon for teaching and learning of computer programming
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2022-09) Oyetade, Kayode Emmanuel; Harmse, Anneke, Dr.; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    Hackathons originated from the evolution and revolution of computers. They were primarily designed as a collaborative tool for solving computer-related tasks or theorising new possibilities based on specific infrastructures. With the prevalence of technology and the drive for digital evolution, the role of hackathons becomes increasingly essential, making its presence known in almost every domain with the potential to transform the business world and society at large. However, hackathons in the educational domain cannot be understood in the same way as their counterparts in a purely business or career-driven domain because of their special nature. Given that educational institutions in South Africa are still in the early stages of using hackathons, studying factors affecting hackathon adoption for teaching and learning computer programming is critical and timely. The research aimed to investigate and find factors that had a bearing on hackathon adoption for teaching and learning computer programming. To realise the aim, a systematic literature review was conducted. Then, a conceptual framework was developed that has its variables (attitude (ATT), effort expectancy (EE), facilitating conditions (FC), perceived usefulness (PU), relative advantage (RA), performance expectancy (PE), perceived ease of use (PEOU), subjective norm (SN), and behavioural intention (BI)) based on an extensive literature review. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to test the model. The web-based questionnaire was administered to two hundred forty-nine (249) South African Information Technology programming students. Reliability of variables was measured, and all the variables had a co-efficient of 0.7 and greater. Factor analysis was applied and the PEOU failed to fulfil the requirement and so it was dropped. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to further analyse the data collected. The correlation result indicated that all the remaining variables in the conceptual framework are significant and have a positive relationship PU (𝑟=0.615), RA (𝑟=0.657), PE (𝑟= 0.597), SE (𝑟=0.660), ATT (𝑟=0.440), EE (𝜌<0.520), SN (𝑟= 0.441), and FC (𝑟=0.357) have a positive relationship with behavioural intention (𝜌<0.001) to adopt hackathon. The regression result indicated that the following variables (PU (𝛽=0.141,𝜌=0.036), RA (𝛽=0.142,𝜌=0.045), PE (𝛽=0.205,𝜌=0.002) and SE (𝛽=0.330,𝜌=0.000) have a positive influence on students’ hackathon adoption. The research study managed to validate the conceptual framework indicating variables that influence or have a relationship with BI. The developed framework forms the main contribution of this research study. The developed framework can be used to assist educators with the variables that have a strong bearing on the adoption of hackathon in education. The adoption of hackathon in education will contribute towards transforming the learning environment from a teacher-centred to a learner-centred one by facilitating a form of social learning where knowledge is created amongst students when interacting, thereby, building relationships, and supporting the learning that happens from cooperation, dependence and helping each other. In conclusion, the introduction of hackathons in education in computer programming can revolutionise the programming landscape in South Africa and around the world during this period of the fourth industrial revolution.
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    Proactive university library book recommender system
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021) Mekonnen, Tadesse Zewdu; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    Too many options on the internet are the reason for the information overload problem to obtain relevant information. A recommender system is a technique that filters information from large sets of data and recommends the most relevant ones based on people‟s preferences. Collaborative and content-based techniques are the core techniques used to implement a recommender system. A combined use of both collaborative and content-based techniques called hybrid techniques provide relatively good recommendations by avoiding common problems arising from each technique. In this research, a proactive University Library Book Recommender System has been proposed in which hybrid filtering is used for enhanced and more accurate recommendations. The prototype designed was able to recommend the highest ten books for each user. We evaluated the accuracy of the results using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). A measure value of 0.84904 MAE and 0.9579 RMSE found by our system shows that the combined use of both techniques gives an improved prediction accuracy for the University Library Book Recommender System.
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    Virtual group movie recommendation system using social network information
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-11-27) Manamolela, Lefats'e; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.; Martin, Apiah, Dr.
    Since their emergence in the 1990’s, recommendation systems have transformed the intelligence of both the web and humans. A pool of research papers has been published in various domains of recommendation systems. These include content based, collaborative and hybrid filtering recommendation systems. Recommendation systems suggest items to users and their principal purpose is to increase sales and recommend items that are predicted to be suitable for users. They achieve this through making calculations based on data that is available on the system. In this study, we give evidence that the research on group recommendation systems must look more carefully at the dynamics of group decision-making in order to produce technologies that will be more beneficial for groups based on the individual interests of group members while also striving to maximise satisfaction. The matrix factorization algorithm of collaborative filtering was used to make predictions and three movie recommendation for each and every individual user. The three recommendations were of three highest predicted movies above the pre-set threshold which was three. Thereafter, four virtual groups of varied sizes were formed based on four highest predicted movies of the users in the dataset. Plurality voting strategy was used to achieve this. A publicly available dataset based on Group Recommender Systems Enhanced by Social Elements, constructed by Lara Quijano from the Group of Artificial Intelligence Applications (GIGA), was used for experiments. The developed recommendation system was able to successfully make individual movie recommendations, generate virtual groups, and recommend movies to these respective groups. The system was evaluated for accuracy in making predictions and it was able to achieve 0.7027 MAE and 0.8996 RMSE. This study was able to recommend to virtual groups to enable social network group members to engage in discussions of recommended items. The study encourages members in engaging in similar activities in their respective physical locations and then discuss on social network.
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    Facial and keystroke biometric recognition for computer based assessments
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-12) Adetunji, Temitope Oluwafunmilayo; Appiah, Martin, Dr.; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    Computer based assessments have become one of the largest growing sectors in both nonacademic and academic establishments. Successful computer based assessments require security against impersonation and fraud and many researchers have proposed the use of Biometric technologies to overcome this issue. Biometric technologies are defined as a computerised method of authenticating an individual (character) based on behavioural and physiological characteristic features. Basic biometric based computer based assessment systems are prone to security threats in the form of fraud and impersonations. In a bid to combat these security problems, keystroke dynamic technique and facial biometric recognition was introduced into the computer based assessment biometric system so as to enhance the authentication ability of the computer based assessment system. The keystroke dynamic technique was measured using latency and pressure while the facial biometrics was measured using principal component analysis (PCA). Experimental performance was carried out quantitatively using MATLAB for simulation and Excel application package for data analysis. System performance was measured using the following evaluation schemes: False Acceptance Rate (FAR), False Rejection Rate (FRR), Equal Error Rate (EER) and Accuracy (AC), for a comparison between the biometric computer based assessment system with and without the keystroke and face recognition alongside other biometric computer based assessment techniques proposed in the literature. Successful implementation of the proposed technique would improve computer based assessment’s reliability, efficiency and effectiveness and if deployed into the society would improve authentication and security whilst reducing fraud and impersonation in our society.
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    A mobile proximity job employment recommender system
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020-12) Mpela, Motebang Daniel; Appiah, Martin, Dr.; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    With a rapid growth of internet technologies, many companies have transformed from the old traditional ways of recruiting employees to electronic recruitment (e-recruitment). E-recruiting channels achieved a solid advantage for both employers and job applicants by dropping advertising cost, applying cost as well as hiring time. Job recommender systems aim to help in people – job matching. In this research, a proposed mobile job employment recommender system is a client – server application that uses content – based filtering algorithm to enable the initial selection of a suitable leisure job seeker to a temporary job at a particular place and vice versa. A prototype of a mobile job recommendation application was developed to evaluate the algorithm. The evaluation matrix used to assess the prototype are precision, recall and the F-measure. The precision value was found to be 0.994, the recall value was 0.975 and the F1- score was 0.984. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm show the effectiveness of the system to recommend suitable candidates for jobs at a specified area. The recommender system was able to achieve its main aim of enabling the initial selection of suitable temporary job seekers to a temporary job at a particular place and vice versa. Thus, the results of the proposed algorithm are satisfactory.
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    An innovative internet of things solution to control real-life autonomous vehicles
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021-06) Wahl, Roger L.; Joubert, A., Dr.; Jordaan, A., Prof
    This research was initiated because of a global increase in congestion on roads and the consequent increase in the rate of fatalities on both national and international roads. Annually, 1.3 million people are killed on the roads globally, and millions are injured. It was estimated that 2.4 million people will be killed in road traffic accidents annually by 2030, and in South Africa, over 14 000 deaths were reported in 2016. A study undertaken by the American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety (AAAFTS), established in 1947 to conduct research and address growing highway safety issues, found that motorcar accidents, on average, cost the United States $300 billion per annum. In the same vain, the World Health Organisation (WHO) asserted in their 2013 Global Status Safety Report on Road Safety that by 2020, traffic accidents would become the third leading cause of death globally. In this organisation’s 2015 report, South Africa was listed as having one of the highest road fatality rates in the world, averaging 27 out of 100 000 people. Cognisance of these statistics that describe wanton loss of life and serious economic implications, among other reasons, led to the development of autonomous vehicles (AVs), such as Google and Uber’s driverless taxis and Tesla’s autonomous vehicle. Companies have invested in self-driving prototypes, and they bolster this investment with continuous research to rectify imperfections in the technologies and to enable the implementation of AVs on conventional roads. This research aimed to address issues surrounding the systems communication concept, and focused on a novel method of the routing facet of AVs by exploring the mechanisms of the virtual system of packet switching and by applying these same principles to route autonomous vehicles. This implies that automated vehicles depart from a source address and arrive at a pre-determined destination address in a manner analogous to packet switching technology in computer networking, where a data packet is allotted a source and destination address as it traverses the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model for open system interconnection prior to dissemination through the network. This research aimed to develop an IoT model that reduces road congestion by means of a cost effective and reliable method of routing AVs and lessen dependency on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication with their heavy and costly sensor equipment and GPS, all of which under certain conditions malfunction. At the same time, as safety remains the foremost concern, the concept aimed to reduce the human factor to a considerable degree. The researcher demonstrated this by designing a computer-simulated Internet of Things (IoT) model of the concept. Experimental research in the form of a computer simulation was adopted as the most appropriate research approach. A prototype was developed containing the algorithms that simulated the theoretical model of IoT vehicular technology. The merits of the constructed prototype were analysed and discussed, and the results obtained from the implementation exercise were shared. Analysis was conducted to verify arguments on assumptions to clarify the theory, and the outcome of the research (an IoT model encompassing vehicular wireless technologies) shows how the basic concept of packet switching can be assimilated as an effective mechanism to route large-scale autonomous vehicles within the IoT milieu, culminating in an effective commuter operating system. Controlled routing will invariably save the traveller time, provide independence to those who cannot drive, and decrease the greenhouse effect, whilst the packet switching characteristic offers greater overall security. In addition, the implications of this research will require a workforce to supplement new growth opportunities.
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    Framework for aligning information systems with business strategy in small medium enterprises in Gauteng, South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020) Kale, Rethabile Charlotte; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    The alignment of Information Systems (IS) with business processes in organisations is a dynamic state whereby an organisation uses Information Technology in order to achieve business objectives. The alignment of IT exists when goals, activities and processes of a business are in harmony with the Information Systems which are supporting them. The lack of IT strategic alignment in organisations lead to poor IT Return on Investment (ROI), inefficient operations due to poor performance that impact the organization’s competitive advantage. Studies on Information Systems Alignment have merely focused on the alignment between Business and Information System Strategy. Very few studies have studied this alignment in Small and Medium Enterprises to investigate what impact the alignment has with the business performance. The purpose of this study is to measure the alignment between Information system and the business strategy in Small and Medium Enterprises and to investigate the impact of this alignment on the business performance. A model was used to measure the alignment between Business and Information System Strategy and its impact on the business performance. Data was collected through the use of a questionnaire. A sample of ninety-nine (99) individuals from a variety of SMEs was used. SPSS was used to analyse the data. The results showed the variables of the model were all positively correlated to one another. Therefore, alignment of Information Systems (IS) and Business Strategy was confirmed. The influence of the alignment was found to have a positive influence (0.459) on the overall performance of the business. In conclusion, it is imperative for SMEs to align Information Systems (IS) and Business Strategy in order to increase the overall performance of their businesses.
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    Mobile crowdsourcing in crop production for farmers in rural areas of the South Kivu (DRC)
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2020) Kahasha, Iranga Emmanuella; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    In most African countries, agriculture remains a key factor in economic development with over half the population living in rural areas and directly or indirectly deriving their livelihoods from agriculture. Agriculture still faces several challenges that prevent it from being able to make its maximum contribution to economic expansion, despite it being the backbone for economic growth. As a major cause for change in all spheres of human lives, information and communications technology (ICT) has played a positive role in different segments of society, such as agriculture, education and community development. However, it could play a greater role in agriculture by assisting farmers who face challenges on a daily basis. Farmers may lack an operative way to gather farm produce data, to obtain information from other interested parties (e.g. agriculture advisers) and to record farm input expenses and expenditure on farm chemicals. These and other challenges experienced by farmers may be solved by gaining ICT access through using available technologies. Farmers need to benefit from earlier unexploited opportunities regarding the provision of cost-effective communication and learn about advanced practices previously unknown to them. In this research study, the researcher studied factors that influence farmers in the adoption of a mobile crowdsourcing portal for agriculture purposes. A model was used to measure the perception of farmers about the technology after having used it for a season. The model consisted of the following variables: quality factors; perceived ease of use; experience; perceived usefulness; attitude toward using; and behavioural intention to use. A test for reliability and validity proved that the model was acceptable. The results of the data analysis indicated that there was a strong relationship between the multiple independent factors and the dependent variable in the model. The researcher concluded that mobile crowdsourcing applications are perceived as enhancing agricultural development in remote areas with regard to data accessibility, the development of crop production, support in the decision-making process and their importance in sustaining agricultural activities.
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    Simultaneous localization and mapping for autonomous robot navigation in a dynamic noisy environment
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-11) Agunbiade, Olusanya Yinka; Zuva, T., Prof.
    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is a significant problem that has been extensively researched in robotics. Its contribution to autonomous robot navigation has attracted researchers towards focusing on this area. In the past, various techniques have been proposed to address SLAM problem with remarkable achievements but there are several factors having the capability to degrade the effectiveness of SLAM technique. These factors include environmental noises (light intensity and shadow), dynamic environment, kidnap robot and computational cost. These problems create inconsistency that can lead to erroneous results in implementation. In the attempt of addressing these problems, a novel SLAM technique Known as DIK-SLAM was proposed. The DIK-SLAM is a SLAM technique upgraded with filtering algorithms and several re-modifications of Monte-Carlo algorithm to increase its robustness while taking into consideration the computational complexity. The morphological technique and Normalized Differences Index (NDI) are filters introduced to the novel technique to overcome shadow. The dark channel model and specular-to-diffuse are filters introduced to overcome light intensity. These filters are operating in parallel since the computational cost is a concern. The re-modified Monte-Carlo algorithm based on initial localization and grid map technique was introduced to overcome the issue of kidnap problem and dynamic environment respectively. In this study, publicly available dataset (TUM-RGBD) and a privately generated dataset from of a university in South Africa were employed for evaluation of the filtering algorithms. Experiments were carried out using Matlab simulation and were evaluated using quantitative and qualitative methods. Experimental results obtained showed an improved performance of DIK-SLAM when compared with the original Monte Carlo algorithm and another available SLAM technique in literature. The DIK-SLAM algorithm discussed in this study has the potential of improving autonomous robot navigation, path planning, and exploration while it reduces robot accident rates and human injuries.
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    Asset tracking, monitoring and recovery system based on hybrid radio frequency identification and global positioning system technologies
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021) Matshego, Itumeleng Olebogeng; Appiah, M., Dr.; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    Tracking involves information gathering, manipulation and proving information on the location of a set item. Many single or hybrid technologies – Global Positioning System (GPS), Radio Frequency (RF), Bluetooth (BLT) or Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) – have been used to provide tracking information of an asset of interest. The use of hybrid technology in tracking assets has proven to be effective if the selection of the technologies used is done correctly. This study used a hybrid of GPS and Radio Frequency technologies to track assets of interest because of their characteristics for use inside and outside a building. In this study GPS geo-fencing was used and time interval was used to receive data from the technology. Heuristic methodology, which enabled us to divide a room into sections, was used, where testing was done in sections in a room with different types of material, such as bricks, wood or metal, and the RF signal degradation, called attenuation, was measured. A straight-line distance and a sum of distances at 30-minute intervals were calculated to determine how far the asset had travelled from the point of origin to the new position. A distance of less than 10 metres was ignored. Geofencing was used to trigger an event since it indicates that the asset has crossed the permitted boundary. An RF reader was placed at the door to identify when the asset left a building and triggered an event. A model was used for searching for a missing item in a room. The results showed that the system was able to produce two distances, one straight-line distance and the other the approximate sum distance travelled by the asset in 30-minute intervals. The RF model was able to find an asset in a room filled with different materials.
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    Investigation and application of artificial intelligence algorithms for complexity metrics based classification of semantic web ontologies
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-11) Koech, Gideon Kiprotich; Fonou-Dombeu, J. V., Dr.
    The increasing demand for knowledge representation and exchange on the semantic web has resulted in an increase in both the number and size of ontologies. This increased features in ontologies has made them more complex and in turn difficult to select, reuse and maintain them. Several ontology evaluations and ranking tools have been proposed recently. Such evaluation tools provide a metrics suite that evaluates the content of an ontology by analysing their schemas and instances. The presence of ontology metric suites may enable classification techniques in placing the ontologies in various categories or classes. Machine Learning algorithms mostly based on statistical methods used in classification of data makes them the perfect tools to be used in performing classification of ontologies. In this study, popular Machine Learning algorithms including K-Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machines, Decision Trees, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Linear Regression and Logistic Regression were used in the classification of ontologies based on their complexity metrics. A total of 200 biomedical ontologies were downloaded from the Bio Portal repository. Ontology metrics were then generated using the OntoMetrics tool, an online ontology evaluation platform. These metrics constituted the dataset used in the implementation of the machine learning algorithms. The results obtained were evaluated with performance evaluation techniques, namely, precision, recall, F-Measure Score and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The Overall accuracy scores for K-Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machines, Decision Trees, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression and Linear Regression algorithms were 66.67%, 65%, 98%, 99.29%, 74%, 64.67%, and 57%, respectively. From these scores, Decision Trees and Random Forests algorithms were the best performing and can be attributed to the ability to handle multiclass classifications.
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    Measuring success of information system in small and medium enterprises in Gauteng
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2021) Willie, L.; Zuva, T., Prof.
    The impacts of information systems (IS) are often indirect and influenced by human, organisational, and environmental factors, therefore measurement of information systems (IS) success is both complex and elusive. Researchers have created models for success emphasizing the need for better and more consistent success metrics. This study endeavoured to measure IS success in SMEs in Gauteng, South Africa in order to find out its impact on these businesses. This research proposed a comprehensive multidimensional model of measuring success of information system in SMEs which suggests that system quality, information quality, service quality, intention to use, user satisfaction, use, self-efficacy, individual benefit/impact, use and organisational benefits/impact are success variables to be used. Online survey questionnaire was distributed to one hundred and twenty-six (126) participants. The data collection instrument fulfilled the reliability and validity tests. The hypotheses were tested using regression analysis. The results enabled the derivation of a generic formal measure of IS success in SMEs with organisational benefits/impact variable as the subject of the formula. The formula can be used by SMEs to measure the success of IS in their respective organisations.
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    Adoption of mobile learning at the University of Technology in South Africa
    (Vaal University of Technology, 2019-11-29) Hlatshwayo, Motsotua Confidence; Baxter, Roger; Zuva, Tranos, Prof.
    The influence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the education system has encouraged both students and educators to become more and more computer literate. With the increased use of portable devices (tablets, PDAs, Smartphones, iPads etc.), mobile learning (m-learning) has gained popularity as it is believed to be an effective and efficient tool for content presentation and knowledge acquisition in education sector. The realisation of the benefits depends on the effective adoption of m-learning technology. The superseding purpose of this study was to investigate the adoption of mobile learning at a University of Technology (UoT) in South Africa. A quantitative study was carried out at an UoT in South Africa, with respect to mobile learning perceptions; 64 valid questionnaires were received from the participants. The proposed research framework/model derived from Extended Technology Acceptance Model (ETAM) and Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3) was used. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 25.0. was used for analysing data. The findings revealed that perceived usefulness of mobile learning, attitude toward mobile learning, service and system quality as well as perceived ease of use are significant predictors of intention to use mobile learning application. Perceived mobility on mobile learning strongly influences perceived usefulness more than perceived ease of use of mobile learning application. The study concluded that it is necessary to measure perception of potential users using the variables in the model proposed before adoption of mobile learning application to ascertain an effective adoption of the technology in education.